# 2.7: Bloom’s Basic Cognitive Domain - Synthesis

- Page ID
- 44745

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\(\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}\) \(\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}\) \(\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}\) \(\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}\) \(\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}\) \(\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}\) \(\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}\) \(\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}\) \(\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}\) \(\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}\) \(\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}\) \(\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}\) \(\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}\) \(\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}\) \(\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}\) \(\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}\) \(\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}\) \(\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}\) \(\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}\) \(\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}\) \(\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}\) \(\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}\) \(\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}\) \(\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}\) \(\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}\) \(\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}\) \(\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}\) \(\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}\) \(\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}\) \(\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}\) \(\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}\) \(\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}\) \(\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}\) \(\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}\) \(\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}\) \(\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}\) \(\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}\) \(\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}\) \(\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}\) \(\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}\) \(\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}\) \(\newcommand{\lt}{<}\) \(\newcommand{\gt}{>}\) \(\newcommand{\amp}{&}\) \(\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}\)SYNTHESIS: At this level, the student should be able to assemble parts into a new whole; formulate a new hypothesis or plan of action; construct a solution to an unfamiliar problem.

## Mathematics

The assemblage of parts into a new whole is a component of synthesis. With this in mind, you may want to give your student the opportunity to arrange assorted numbers into specified sums.

**Long-Term Objective**

Example: The student will arrange different combinations of manipulatives into the same sum.

By sorting different combinations of manipulatives into the same sum, the students is involving herself in a synthesis-level process. Additionally, the term “arrange” indicates a requirement of observable pupil behavior in the short-term objective.

**Short-Term Objective**

Example: Presented with three individual assortments of blue, red, and yellow cubes, the student will demonstrate three ways to select cubes from all three assortments that will equal a total of ten cubes.

By assembling cubes from each group to form a designated total, the student is participating in a synthesis-level activity. In such participation, the student is exercising her creativity toward the achievement of a given outcome (“a total of ten cubes”). Furthermore, the objective is precise with respect to its: conditions (“Presented with three individual assortments of blue, red, and yellow cubes”), behaviors (“demonstrate,” “select”), and minimal standards (“cubes from all three assortments that equal a total of ten cubes”).

## Science

Following discussions on material stress, you may wish to give your student the opportunity to apply her understanding creatively, while simultaneously enhancing her fine motor skills.

**Long-Term Objective**

Example: The student will create structures that reflect acquired concepts.

The term “create” indicates not only synthesis-level performance, but it is also indicative of observable pupil performance, in that the student’s creation of a structure is observable.

**Short-Term Objective**

Presented with ten marshmallows, twenty toothpicks, and a dispenser of tape, the student will use each article of material in constructing a tower that will stand for at least three minutes.

The creative application of acquired knowledge and understanding, this objective also contains an analysis-level performance because the student must understand the relationships among the different components of the tower in order for it to stand. Although calling for pupil creativity, the objective is distinct with respect to its: conditions (“Presented with ten marshmallows, twenty toothpicks, and a dispenser of tape”), behaviors (“use,” “constructing”), and minimal standards (“each article of material,” “tower that will stand for at least three minutes”).

## Social Studies

During a civics discussion, you may decide to give your student the opportunity to devise a clean-up plan for a given area in the community.

**Long-Term Objective**

Example: The student will devise a plan for cleaning up a given area in the community.

The term “devise” is closely linked to the term “create;” and if the student devises a plan, that will be observable behavior.

**Short-Term Objective**

Example: In a discussion with his teacher, the student will devise and vocalize a plan for cleaning up an agreed-upon area, which will include: the involvement of at least one other person; equipment; and a disposal site.

Devising a plan is an exercise in creativity, a synthesis-level activity. With its emphasis on creativity, the objective is, nevertheless, precise in its: conditions (“In a discussion with his teacher”), behaviors (“devise,” “vocalize”), and minimal standards (“a plan for cleaning up an agreed-upon area, which will include: the involvement of at least one other person; equipment; and a disposal site”).

## English Language Arts

In efforts to move your student from participatory into active involvement with literature, you could ask your student to use her literary creativity in completing an unfinished story, according to prescribed guidelines.

**Long-Term Objective**

Example: The student will display creativity in completing unfinished stories.

With its emphasis on creativity, this is a synthesis-level objective, and the term “display” indicates the presence of observable pupil behavior in the short-term objective.

**Short-Term Objective**

Example: After listening to the reading of an unfinished story, the student will create and vocalize her own ending to the story, which will include: at least two of the main characters and a character of her own creation.

This is a synthesis-level objective with standards. The standards, moreover, encourage rather than inhibit creativity. That is, these standards encourage the student to be creative in a manner that otherwise would not have occurred. Providing the parameter for this creativity are the conditions (“After listening to the reading of an unfinished story”), and the expected pupil behaviors are “create” and “vocalize,” with the minimal standards of performance being “at least two of the main characters and a character of her own creation.”

## Daily Living Skills

Aware that there may be individuals who would attempt to take advantage of your student for personal gain, you may wish to assist him in composing plans for tactfully averting such attempts.

**Long-Term Objective**

Example: The student will devise means for averting the ill intentions of others.

A synthesis-level objective, involving the student’s composition of means for protecting himself, the long-term objective provides for a variety of short-term objectives.

**Short-Term Objective**

Example: When presented with the scenario of a stranger’s asking him for change for a five-dollar bill, the student will devise a plan, under the assistance of his teacher, to use his calculator to compute and then list three different combinations that equal exactly five dollars.

This objective contains two synthesis-level components: (1) devising a plan of action and (2) assembling parts to form a whole. Also, it is clear in its statement of: conditions (“When presented with the scenario of a stranger asking him for change for a five-dollar bill”), behaviors (“devise,” “use,” “compute,” “list”) and minimal standards (“three different combinations that equal exactly five dollars”).

## Employability Training Skills

Positive relationships with coworkers are a necessity for optimal job performance. Understanding this, you may decide to assist your student in developing strategies for achieving such relationships.

**Long-Term Objective**

Example: The student will develop strategies for attaining positive relationships with coworkers.

The very process of developing a strategy is a creative endeavor, the results of which should be observable.

**Short-Term Objective**

Example: Following the teacher’s oral presentation of a scenario depicting a conflict between the student and a hypothetical coworker, the student will develop and write a strategy involving at least three steps that would lead to an amicable resolution.

A synthesis-level objective in that the student is creating a strategy, this objective is precise with respect to its: conditions (“Following the teacher’s oral presentation of a scenario depicting a conflict between the student and a hypothetical coworker”), behaviors (“develop,” “write”), and minimal standards (“a strategy involving at least three steps that would lead to an amicable resolution”).