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4.1: Introduction

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    General Outline

    • Issues Related to Student Behavior in the Secondary School
    • Mentor-based Intervention
    • Behavior-Specific Praise
    • Pre-Correction

    Student misbehavior and issues of classroom management have been a pervasive problem in American public education (Maag, 2016) with punishment-based behavior management practices in schools being the go-to system since colonial times (Gershoff, Purtell, & Holas, 2015). For example, 19 predominately southern states currently still allow corporal punishment (e.g., paddling, spanking) in schools as a discipline practice, with more than 160,000 instances occurring in the 2011-2012 school year.

    The more alarming aspect is that prisons have outlawed the practice for nearly a half century, and a person who physically punishes a dog or other animal may be subject to criminal proceedings.

    Another frequently used practice is disciplinary exclusion (e.g., suspension, expulsion, time-out). In the 2011-2012 academic year, 3.45 million students were suspended out of school, with students with disabilities being suspended twice as often as their nondisabled peers (United States Department of Education [USDOE], 2016). This too has been criticized for its inability to deter misbehavior, and leads to children growing further behind academically (Dear Colleague Letter, 2016). In a Dear Colleague Letter (DCL), the United States Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), gave guidance to schools on the utilization of disciplinary exclusions and their effect on students with disabilities. See the Note for a description of IDEA’s rules on disciplinary exclusions. More interestingly, is that OSEP clarified the rules for disciplinary exclusions more broadly than simply a suspension and included “A pattern of office referrals, extended time excluded from instruction (e.g., time out), or extended restrictions in privileges” (pp.13). Essentially, if the student spends a large amount of time out of their instructional setting for disciplinary reasons, even if it’s in another teacher’s room to calm down, and there is a pattern to these removals, a denial of a FAPE may be occurring.

    Note BOX

    §300.530 (b) School personnel under this section may remove a child with a disability who violates a code of student conduct from his or her current placement to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting, another setting, or suspension, for not more than 10 consecutive school days (to the extent those alternatives are applied to children without disabilities), and for additional removals of not more than 10 consecutive school days in that same school year for separate incidents of misconduct (as long as those removals do not constitute a change of placement under §300.536).

    §300.530 (d) (1) A child with a disability who is removed from the child’s current placement pursuant to paragraphs (c), or (g) of this section must—

    1. Continue to receive educational services, as provided in §300.101(a), so as to enable the child to continue to participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and to progress toward meeting the goals set out in the child’s IEP; and
    2. Receive, as appropriate, a functional behavioral assessment, and behavioral intervention services and modifications, that are designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur.

    Also, see: mc=true&node=se34.2.300_1530&rgn=div8

    This page titled 4.1: Introduction is shared under a CC BY-ND license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Mickey Losinski (New Prairie Press/Kansas State University Libraries) .

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