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17.6: A.6- End of Chapter Content

  • Page ID
    199821
    • Jason M. Organ & Jessica N. Byram

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    References

    Bass, William M. 2005. Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual, 5th edition. Columbia, MO: Missouri Archaeological Society.

    Boldsen, Jesper L., George R. Milner, Lyle W. Konigsberg, and James W. Wood. 2002. “Transition Analysis: A New Method for Estimating Age from Skeletons.” In Paleodemography: Age Distributions from Skeletal Samples, edited by Robert D. Hoppa and James W. Vaupel, 73–106. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Buikstra, Jane E., and Douglas H. Ubelaker. 1994. Standards for Data Collection From Human Skeletal Remains. Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series, 44. Fayetteville, AR: Arkansas Archeological Survey.

    Burr, David B., and Jason M. Organ. 2017. “Postcranial Skeletal Development and Its Evolutionary Implications.” In Building Bones: Bone Formation and Development in Anthropology, edited by Christopher J. Percival and Joan T. Richtsmeier, 148–174. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Christensen, Angi M., Nicholas V. Passalacqua, and Eric J. Bartelink. 2019. Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice. London: Academic Press.

    Cunningham, Craig, Louise Scheuer, and Sue Black. 2017. Developmental Juvenile Osteology, 2nd Edition. London: Elsevier.

    Hartnett, Kristen M. 2010 “Analysis of Age-at-Death Estimation Using Data from a New, Modern Autopsy Sample—Part II: Sternal End of the Fourth Rib. Journal of Forensic Sciences 55 (5): 1152–1156.

    Meindl, Richard S., and C. Owen Lovejoy. 1985. “Ectocranial Suture Closure: A Revised Method for the Determination of Skeletal Age at Death Based on the Lateral-Anterior Sutures.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 68 (1): 57–66.

    Nawrocki, Stephen P., Krista E. Latham, Thomas Gore, Rachel M. Hoffman, Jessica N. Byram, and Justin Maiers. 2018. “Using Elliptical Fourier Analysis to Interpret Complex Morphological Features in Global Populations.” In New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification, edited by Krista E. Latham, Eric J. Bartelink, and Michael Finnegan, 301–312. London: Elsevier/Academic Press.

    Walker, Phillip L. 2008. “Sexing Skulls Using Discriminant Function Analysis of Visually Assessed Traits.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 136 (1): 39–50.

    Image Description

    Figure A.1: This illustration depicts an anterior view of the right femur, or thigh bone. The inferior end that connects to the knee is at the bottom of the diagram and the superior end that connects to the hip is at the top of the diagram. The bottom end of the bone contains a smaller lateral bulge and a larger medial bulge. A blue articular cartilage covers the inner half of each bulge as well as the small trench that runs between the bulges. This area of the inferior end of the bone is labeled the distal epiphysis. Above the distal epiphysis is the metaphysis, where the bone tapers from the wide epiphysis into the relatively thin shaft. The entire length of the shaft is the diaphysis. The superior half of the femur is cut away to show its internal contents. The bone is covered with an outer translucent sheet called the periosteum. At the midpoint of the diaphysis, a nutrient artery travels through the periosteum and into the inner layers of the bone. The periosteum surrounds a white cylinder of solid bone labeled compact bone. The cavity at the center of the compact bone is called the medullary cavity. The inner layer of the compact bone that lines the medullary cavity is called the endosteum. Within the diaphysis, the medullary cavity contains a cylinder of yellow bone marrow that is penetrated by the nutrient artery. The superior end of the femur is also connected to the diaphysis by a metaphysis. In this upper metaphysis, the bone gradually widens between the diaphysis and the proximal epiphysis. The proximal epiphysis of the femur is roughly hexagonal in shape. However, the upper right side of the hexagon has a large, protruding knob. The femur connects and rotates within the hip socket at this knob. The knob is covered with a blue colored articular cartilage. The internal anatomy of the upper metaphysis and proximal epiphysis are revealed. The medullary cavity in these regions is filled with the mesh-like spongy bone. Red bone marrow occupies the many cavities within the spongy bone. There is a clear, white line separating the spongy bone of the upper metaphysis with that of the proximal epiphysis. This line is labeled the epiphyseal line.”

    Figure A.2: On the left side is an anterior view of a complete human skeleton. PRojecting from it to the right are six different colored rows with six functions of the human skeleton and a smaller corresponding image:

    • Protects internal organs (image of crania with brain inside)
    • Stores and releases fat (image of the proximal half of a femur with yellow marrow drawn in the shaft’s medullary cavity and red specs in the cancellous bone of the proximal femur.
    • Produces blood cells (image of red blood cells)
    • Stores and releases minerals (image of bubbles with either Ca2+ or PO43- written on them.)
    • Facilitates movement (image of the bones in a knee)
    • Supports the body (image of the lower leg and foot bones)

    Figure A.3: This illustration shows an anterior view of a human skeleton with call outs of five bones. The first call out is the sternum, or breast bone, which lies along the midline of the thorax. The sternum is the bone to which the ribs connect at the front of the body. It is classified as a flat bone and appears somewhat like a tie, with an enlarged upper section and a thin, tapering, lower section. The next callout is the right femur, which is the thigh bone. The inferior end of the femur is broad where it connects to the knee while the superior edge is ball-shaped where it attaches to the hip socket. The femur is an example of a long bone. The next callout is of the patella or kneecap. It is a small, wedge-shaped bone that sits on the anterior side of the knee. The kneecap is an example of a sesamoid bone. The next callout is a dorsal view of the right foot. The lateral, intermediate and medial cuneiform bones are small, square-shaped bones of the top of the foot. These bones lie between the proximal edge of the toe bones and the inferior edge of the shin bones. The lateral cuneiform is proximal to the fourth toe while the medial cuneiform is proximal to the great toe. The intermediate cuneiform lies between the lateral and medial cuneiform. These bones are examples of short bones. The fifth callout shows a superior view of one of the lumbar vertebrae. The vertebra has a kidney-shaped body connected to a triangle of bone that projects above the body of the vertebra. Two spines project off of the triangle at approximately 45 degree angles. The vertebrae are examples of irregular bones.

    Figure A.4: The top of this diagram shows the cross section of a generic bone with three zoom in boxes. The first box is on the periosteum. The second box is on the middle of the compact bone layer. The third box is on the inner edge of the compact bone where it transitions into the spongy bone. The callout in the periosteum points to two images. In the first image, four osteoblast cells are sitting end to end on the periosteum. The osteoblasts are roughly square shaped, except for one of the cells which is developing small, finger like projections. The caption says, “Osteoblasts form the matrix of the bone.” The second image called out from the periosteum shows a large, amorphous osteogenic cell sitting on the periosteum. The osteogenic cell is surrounded on both sides by a row of much smaller osteoblasts. The cell is shaped like a mushroom cap and also has finger like projections. The cell is a stem cell that develops into other bone cells. The box in the middle of the compact bone layer is pointing to an osteocyte. The osteocyte is a thin cell, roughly diamond shaped, with many branching, finger-like projections. The osteoctyes maintain bone tissue. The box at the inner edge of the compact bone is pointing to an osteoclast. The osteoclast is a large, round cell with multiple nuclei. It also has rows of fine finger like projections on its lower surface where it is sitting on the compact bone. The osteoclast reabsorbs bone.

    Figure A.5: Image A shows seven osteoblasts, cells with small, finger like projections. They are surrounded by granules of osteoid. Both the cells and the osteoid are contained within a blue, circular, ossification center that is surrounded by a “socket” of dark, string-like collagen fibers and gray mesenchymal cells. The cells are generally amorphous, similar in appearance to an amoeba. In image B, the ossification center is no longer surrounded by a ring of osteoblasts. The osteoblasts have secreted bone into the ossification center, creating a new bone matrix. There are also five osteocytes embedded in the new bone matrix. The osteocytes are thin, oval-shaped cells with many fingerlike projections. Osteoid particles are still embedded in the bony matrix in image B. In image C, the ring of osteoblasts surrounding the ossification center has separated, forming an upper and lower layer of osteoblasts sandwiched between the two layers of mesenchyme cells. A label indicates that the mesenchyme cells and the surrounding collagen fibers form the periosteum. The osteoblasts secrete spongy bone into the space between the two osteoblast rows. Therefore, the accumulating spongy bone pushes the upper and lower rows of osteoblasts away from each other. In this image, most of the spongy bone has been secreted by the osteoblasts, as the trabeculae are visible. In addition, an artery has already broken through the periosteum and invaded the spongy bone. Image D looks similar to image C, except that the rows of osteoblasts are now secreting layers of compact bone between the spongy bone and the periosteum. The artery has now branched and spread throughout the spongy bone. A label indicates that the cavities between the trabeculae now contain red bone marrow.

    Figure A.6: Image A shows a small piece of hyaline cartilage that looks like a bone but without the characteristic enlarged ends. The hyaline cartilage is surrounded by a thin perichondrium. In image B, the hyaline cartilage has increased in size and the ends have begun to bulge outwards. A group of dark granules form at the center of the cartilage. This is labeled the calcified matrix, as opposed to the rest of the cartilage, which is uncalcified matrix. In image C, the hyaline cartilage has again increased in size and spongy bone has formed at the calcified matrix. This is now called the primary ossification center. A nutrient artery has invaded the ossification center and is growing through the cavities of the new spongy bone. In image D, the cartilage now looks like a bone, as it has greatly increased in size and each end has two bulges. Only the proximal half of the bone is shown in all of the remaining images. In image D, spongy bone has completely developed in the medullary cavity, which is surrounded, on both sides, by compact bone. Now, the calcified matrix is located at the border between the proximal metaphysis and the proximal epiphysis. The epiphysis is still composed of uncalcified matrix. In image E, arteries and veins have now invaded the epiphysis, forming a calcified matrix at its center. This is called a secondary ossification center. In image F, the interior of the epiphysis is now completely calcified into bone. The outer edge of the epiphysis remains as cartilage, forming the articular cartilage at the joint. In addition, the border between the epiphysis and the metaphysis remains uncalcified, forming the epiphyseal plate.

    Figure A.8: This illustration shows a female viewed from her right, front side. The anatomical planes are depicted as blue rectangles passing through the woman’s body. The frontal or coronal plane enters through the right side of the body, passes through the body, and exits from the left side. It divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) halves. The sagittal plane enters through the back and emerges through the front of the body. It divides the body into right and left halves. The transverse plane passes through the body perpendicular to the frontal and sagittal planes. This plane is a cross section which divides the body into upper and lower halves.

    Figure A.10: This diagram shows the human skeleton and identifies the major bones. The left panel shows the anterior view (from the front) and the right panel shows the posterior view (from the back).

    Figure A.11: In this image, the lateral view of the human skull is shown and the brain case and facial bones are labeled.

    Figure A.12: This image shows the anterior view (from the front) of the human skull. The major bones on the skull are labeled.

    Figure A.13: This image shows the lateral view of the human skull and identifies the major parts.

    Figure A.14: This image shows the location of the temporal bone. A small image of the skull on the top left shows the temporal bone highlighted in pink and a magnified view of this region then highlights the important parts of the temporal bone.

    Figure A.15: This image shows the superior and inferior view of the skull base. In the top panel, the inferior view is shown. A small image of the skull shows the viewing direction on the left. In the inferior view, the maxilla and the associated bones are shown. In the bottom panel, the superior view shows the ethmoid and sphenoid bones and their subparts.

    Figure A.16: This image shows the location and structure of the sphenoid bone. A small image of the skull on the top left shows the sphenoid bone highlighted in ochre yellow. The top panel shows the superior view of the sphenoid bone and the bottom panel shows the posterior view of the sphenoid bone.

    Figure A.17: This image shows the location and structure of the ethmoid bone. A small image of the skull on the top left shows the ethmoid bone colored in pink. A magnified image shows the inferior view of the ethmoid bone.

    Figure A.18: This image shows the location and structure of the maxilla. A small image of the skull on the top left shows the maxilla in ochre yellow. A magnified view shows the detailed structure of the maxilla.

    Figure A.19: In this image, the different bones forming the orbit for the eyes are shown and labeled.

    Figure A.20: This image shows the sagittal section of the bones that comprise the nasal cavity.

    Figure A.21: This figure shows the structure of the nasal cavity. A lateral view of the human skull is shown on the top left with the nasal cavity highlighted in purple. A magnified view of the nasal cavity shows the various bones present and their location.

    Figure A.22: In this image, the location and structure of the hyoid bone are shown. The top panel shows a person’s face and neck, with the hyoid bone highlighted in gray. The middle panel shows the anterior view and the bottom panel shows the right anterior view.

    Figure A.23: This image shows the structure of the mandible. On the top left, a lateral view of the skull shows the location of the mandible in purple. A magnified image shows the right lateral view of the mandible with the major parts labeled.

    Figure A.24: This image shows the detailed structure of each vertebra. The left panel shows the superior view of the vertebra and the right panel shows the left posterolateral view.

    Figure A.25: This figure shows the structure of the cervical vertebrae. The left panel shows the location of the cervical vertebrae in green along the vertebral column. The middle panel shows the structure of a typical cervical vertebra and the right panel shows the superior and anterior view of the axis.

    Figure A.26: This diagram shows how the thoracic vertebra connects to the angle of the rib. The major parts of the vertebra and the processes connecting the vertebra to the rib are labeled.

    Figure A.27: This figure shows the structure of the thoracic vertebra. The left panel shows the vertebral column with the thoracic vertebrae highlighted in blue. The right panel shows the detailed structure of a single thoracic vertebra.

    Figure A.28: This figure shows the structure of the sacrum and coccyx. The left panel shows the vertebral column with the sacrum and coccyx highlighted in pink. The middle panel shows the anterior view and the right panel shows the posterior view of the sacrum and coccyx.

    Figure A.29: This image shows the structure of the vertebral column. The left panel shows the front view of the vertebral column and the right panel shows the side view of the vertebral column.

    Figure A.30: This figure shows the skeletal structure of the rib cage. The left panel shows the anterior view of the sternum and the right panel shows the anterior panel of the sternum including the entire rib cage.

    Figure A.31: This figure shows the rib change. The top left panel shows the anterior view, and the top right panel shows the posterior view. The bottom panel shows two bones.

    Figure A.32: This diagram shows the anterior and posterior view of the scapula.

    Figure A.33: This diagram shows the bones of the upper arm and the elbow joint. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.

    Figure A.34: This figure shows the bones of the lower arm.

    Figure A.35: This figure shows the bones in the hand and wrist joints. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.

    Figure A.36: This figure shows the bone of the pelvis.

    Figure A.37: This figure shows the right hip bone. The left panel shows the lateral view, and the right panel shows the medial view.

    Figure A.38: This diagram shows the bones of the femur and the patella. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.

    Figure A.39: This diagram shows the bones of the tibia and the fibula. The left panel shows the anterior view, and the right panel shows the posterior view.

    Figure A.40: This diagram shows the bones of the foot from three different perspectives. The upper right panel shows the medial view, the lower right panel shows the lateral view, and the bottom left shows the superior view.


    This page titled 17.6: A.6- End of Chapter Content is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Jason M. Organ & Jessica N. Byram (Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.