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6.3: Friendships

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    Learning Objectives

    1. Understand stages in the development of friendships.
    2. Explain the challenges that gender, culture, and sexual attraction may pose for friendships.
    3. Discuss how friendships have changed as a result of social media. 

    Friendships are voluntary interpersonal relationships between two people who are usually equal and who mutually influence one another. Most people feel the need to feel connected with others. One way we meet our need for connection is through our friendships. Friendship means different things to different people depending on age, gender, and cultural background. Common among all friendships is that they are interpersonal relationships of choice. Throughout your life, you will engage in an ongoing process of developing friendships. Some of your friends may become so close that they are like members of your family.  Other friendships may be more short-term but still important while they last.

    Stages in Developing Friendships

    The Mayo Clinic says that adults with strong support provided by good friends have a reduced risk of depression and that older adults with friends are likely to live longer than those without social connections. Friends can increase your sense of belonging and boost your self-confidence.  They can help you cope with traumas, such as divorce or serious illness, and enrich your quality of life. (Mayo  However, sometimes it can be difficult to make new friends. Rawlins suggests that we develop our friendships through a series of six steps. While we may not follow these six steps in the exact order in all of our relationships, these steps help us understand how we develop friendships.

    Diagram of six circles. Each is connected to the next with a directional arrow flowing right. From the left, these are "Role-Limited Interaction," "Friendly Relations," "Moving Towards Friendship," Nascent Friendship," "Stabilized Friendship," and "Waning Friendship."
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Friendship Development. Source: S. Paynton is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

    Role-Limited Interaction

    The first step in building friendships occurs through Role-Limited Interaction. In this step, we interact with others based on our social roles. For example, when you meet a new person in the class, your interaction centers around your role as a “student.” Communication is characterized by a focus on superficial, rather than personal topics. In this step, we engage in limited self-disclosure and rely on scripts and stereotypes. When two first-time freshmen met in an introductory course, they struck up a conversation and interacted according to the roles they played in the context of their initial communication. They began a conversation because they sit near each other in class and discussed how much they liked or disliked aspects of the course.

    Friendly Relations

    The second step in developing friendships is called Friendly Relations. This stage is characterized by communication that moves beyond initial roles as the participants begin to interact with one another to see if there are common interests, as well as an interest to continue getting to know one another. As the students spend more time together and have casual conversations, they may realize a wealth of shared interests. They realize that both were traveling from far distances to go to school and understood each other’s struggle with missing their families. Each of them also loves athletics, especially playing basketball. The development of this friendship occurred as they identified with each other as more than classmates. They saw each other as women of the same age, with similar goals, ambitions, and interests. Moreover, as one of them studied Communication and the other Psychology, they appreciated the differences as well as similarities in their collegiate pursuits.

    Moving Toward Friendship

    The third step in developing friendships is called Moving Toward Friendship. In this stage, participants make moves to foster a more personalized friendship. They may begin meeting outside of the setting in which the relationship started, and begin increasing the levels of self-disclosure. Self-disclosure enables new friends to form bonds of trust. When the students entered this stage it was right before one joined the basketball club on their college campus. As she started practices and meetings, she realized this would be something fun for her and her classmate to do together so she invited her classmate along.

    Nascent Friendship

    The fourth step in developing friendships is called Nascent Friendship. In this stage, individuals commit to spending more time together. They also may start using the term “friend” to refer to each other as opposed to “a person in my history class” or “this guy I work with.” The interactions extend beyond the initial roles as participants work out their own private communication rules and norms. For example, they may start calling or texting on a regular basis or reserving certain times and activities for each other such as going on evening runs together. As time went on, the students started texting each other more frequently just to tell each other a funny story that happened during the day, to make plans for going out to eat, or to plan for meeting at the gym to work out.

    Stabilized Friendship

    The fifth step in developing friendships is Stabilized Friendship. In this stage, friends take each other for granted as friends, but not in a negative way. Because the friendship is solid, they assume each other will be in their lives. There is an assumption of continuity. The communication in this stage is also characterized by a sense of trust as levels of self-disclosure increase and each person feels more comfortable revealing parts of him or herself to the other. This stage can continue indefinitely throughout a lifetime. When the women became friends, they were freshmen in college. After finishing school some years later, they moved to separate regions for graduate school. While they were sad to move away from one another, they knew the friendship would continue. To this day they continue to be best friends.

    Waning Friendship

    The final step in friendship development is Waning Friendship. As you know, friendships do not always have a happy ending. Many friendships come to an end. Friendships may not simply come to an abrupt end. Many times there are stages that show a decline of a friendship, but in Rawlin’s model, the ending of a friendship is summed up by this step. Perhaps the relationship is too difficult to sustain over large geographic distances. Or, sometimes people change and grow in different directions and have little in common with old friends. Sometimes friendship rules are violated to a degree beyond repair. We spoke earlier of trust as a component of friendships. One common rule of trust is that if we tell friends a secret, they are expected to keep it a secret. If that rule is broken, and a friend continually breaks your trust by telling your secrets to others, you are likely to stop thinking of them as your friend.

    Challenges for Friendships

    While these steps are a general pathway toward friendship, friendships are not always smooth. As with any relationship, challenges exist in friendships that can strain their development. Three of the more common challenges to friendships are gender, cultural diversity, and sexual attraction. Important to remember is that each of these constructs comes with its own conflicts of power and privilege because of the cultural norms and the values we give to certain characteristics. These are challenges to relationships since studies show that people tend to associate with others that are similar to themselves (Echols & Graham). Take a look at the pair on the side of the page, they identify as different genders, ethnicities, cultures, and are even attracted to different sexes. Their friendship not only offers an opportunity to learn about differences through each other but also offers challenges because of these differences. As we emphasize throughout the book, factors such as our gender identities and cultural backgrounds always play a role in our interactions with others.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): Friends ( Open Images )


    Research suggests that both women and men value trust and intimacy in their friendships and value their time spent with friends (Mathews, Derlega & Morrow; Bell & Coleman; Monsour & Rawlins). However, there are some differences in the interactions that take place within women’s and men’s friendships (Burleson, Jones & Holmstrom; Coates; Harriman). Quite common among female friends, is to get together simply to talk and catch up with one another. When calling her close friend, Antoinette might say, “Why don’t you come over to my place so we can talk?” The need to connect through verbal communication is explicitly stated and forms the basis for the relationship. In contrast, among male friends, a more common approach to interaction is an invitation to engage in an activity as a means of facilitating the conversation. For example, John might say to his friend, “Hey, Mike, let’s play video games this weekend.” The explicit request is to engage in an activity, but John and Mike understand that as they engage in the activity, they will talk, joke around, and reinforce their friendship ties. While we have often looked at gender as male and female, culture is changing in that gender is now often viewed as a spectrum rather than the male/female binary. Research is now being done to be more inclusive of gender definitions that extend beyond the male/female binary. This research may be cutting edge in its field, but as society becomes more accepting of difference, new ideas of relationship rules will emerge.


    Cultural values shape how we understand our friendships. Most Western societies emphasize individualism (as opposed to collectivism); thus friendships are seen as voluntary in that we get to choose whom we want in our friendship circle. If we do not like someone we do not have to be friends with him or her in personal life. This is in contrast to the workplace, or school, where we may be forced to get along with colleagues or classmates even though we may not like them. In many collectivist cultures, such as Japan and China, friendships carry certain obligations that are understood by all parties (Carrier; Kim & Markman). These may include gift-giving, employment, and economic opportunities Although these sorts of connections, particularly in business and politics, may be frowned upon in the United States because they contradict the cultural value of individualism, they are natural, normal, and logical results of friendships in collectivist cultures.

    Sexual Attraction

    The classic film, When Harry Met Sally, highlights how sexual attraction can complicate friendships. In the movie, Harry quotes the line, “Men and women can’t be friends because the sex always gets in the way.” Levels of sexual attraction or sexual tension may challenge friendships between heterosexual men and women, gay men, and lesbian women. This may arise from an internal desire of one of the friends to explore a sexual relationship, or if someone in the relationship indicates that he/she wants to be “more than friends.” These situations might place strain on the friendship and require the individuals to address the situation if they want the friendship to continue. One approach has been the recent definition of friendships called, “Friends with Benefits.” This term implies an understanding that two people will identify their relationship as a friendship, but will be open to engaging in sexual activity without committing to the other characteristics common in romantic relationships.

    Key Takeaways

    Friendships are voluntary relationships between people who are usually equal and mutually influence one another. They are interpersonal relationships of choice. 

    Most friendships move through 6 discrete phases.  Some friendships last a lifetime, but those who enter the waning phase come to an end.

    Three common challenges of friendship are gender, culture, and sexual attraction on the part of one friend but not the other. 

    Friendships and Social Media

    • Take a moment to reflect on how many friends you have in your everyday life. Is that number equivalent or more than the number you have on social media accounts like Facebook? Chances are, those numbers are very different. To those of us who have access to social media, it is changing the ways we develop and maintain friendships
    • Social networking addiction occurs when people become so dependent on Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, Facebook, and related platforms that all of their communication seems to take place within these virtual places. Many researchers conclude that addiction to social media is much stronger than an addiction to cigarettes or alcohol. Can social networking addiction enhance or interfere with friendships? 
    • Six Ways Social Media Changed the Way We Communicate discusses how our ability and need to share and consume information quickly can lead to changes in our relationships and ourselves. The article also provides related links. (Open Stax) What conclusions can you draw about social media and friendships?


    CC licensed content, Shared previously:

    Communication and Technology. OpenStax College Success, 3 Dec. 2020,

    Survey of Communication Study. Authored by: Scott T Paynton and Linda K Hahn. Provided by: Humboldt State University. Located at: License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike

    Image of Friendship Model. Authored by: Spaynton. Located at: License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike

    Image of 2 friends. Authored by: Spaynton. Located at: License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike

    6.3: Friendships is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Lisa Coleman, Thomas King, & William Turner.