For Further Exploration
Costa, James T. 2017. Darwin’s Backyard: How Small Experiments Led to a Big Theory. New York: W.W. Norton.
Darwin, Charles. 1905. The Voyage of the Beagle. (Originally published in 1839 as Journal and Remarks). [Author’s note: Several editions exist with different publishers, including illustrated editions, paperback editions, and e-books.]
Moore, John A. 1993. Science as a Way of Knowing: The Foundations of Modern Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Al-Haytham, Ibn. 1011-1021. Kitāb al-Manāẓir (Book of Optics). Cairo, Egypt.
Al-Jahiz. 776–868 CE. Kitab al-Hayawan (Book of Animals).
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Figure 2.11: A simple world map with a line depicting the ocean route that the H.M.S. Beagle took, and the ports visited. Leaving Plymouth (Europe), the ship traveled south past Africa, around most of the coastline of South America, then around the southern sides of Australia and Africa, before returning briefly to South America and then Europe. Ports noted on the map include Plymouth (Europe); Teneriffa (Africa), Kap Verde, Salvador da Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Falklandinseln, Valparaiso, Callao Lima, Galápagos-Inseln Kap Verde (South America); Sydney, Hobart, King George Sound (Australia), Kokosinseln, Mauritius (Southeast Asian Islands); Kapstadt (Africa); Salvador da Bahia (South America); Azoren (Atlantic Island); Plymouth (Europe).
Figure 2.19: Grayscale political map of Europe on a blue background. The percentage of individuals with the CCR5-delta 32 allele is printed on each nation. Albania: 5.5%; Algeria: 5.0%; Armenia: 3.3%; Austria: 9.7%; Azerbaijan: 4.0%; Belarus: 10.2%; Belgium: 9.9%; Bosnia-Herzegovina: 8.1%; Bulgaria: 7.1%; Chile:12.0%; Croatia : 7.5%; Czech Republic: 10.7%; Denmark: 12.3%; Eritrea: 0.3%; Estonia: 15.6%; Faroe Islands: 9.9%; Finland: 12.9%; France: 10.6%; Georgia: 4.2%; Germany: 11.1%; Greece: 5.2%; Hungary: 11.2%; Ireland: 12.4%; Italy: 6.3%; Kazakhstan: 10.3%; Latvia: 15.1%; Lithuania: 12.1%; Luxembourg: 9.2%; Macedonia: 5.2%; Morocco: 3.3%; Moldova: 12.1%; Montenegro: 11.1%; Netherlands: 10.3%; Norway: 16.4%; Poland: 10.6%; Romania: 8.8%; Russia: 10.9%; Serbia: 7.0%; Slovakia: 9.4%; Slovenia: 7.1%; Spain: 8.1%; Switzerland: 9.4%; Tunisia: 3.9%; Turkey: 3.4%; Ukraine: 9.8%; United Kingdom: 11.8%.
Figure 2.20: Political map of the world on a white oval background. Unlabeled nations are color coded by the percentage of individuals with HIV/AIDS. Colors range from no-data (gray), and shades of pink and red. Categories are from lightest pink: x < 0.2%, 0.2% ≤ x < 0.5%, 0.5% ≤ x < 1%, 1% ≤ x < 2%, 2% ≤ x < 3%, 3% ≤ x < 5%, 5% ≤ x < 10%, 10% ≤ x < 15%, 15% ≤ x < 20%, 20% ≤ x. The lightest shades of pink are in North Africa, the Middle east, Australia, and parts of Europe. The darkest shades are found in sub saharan Africa, particularly in the most southern and eastern regions.