Skip to main content
Social Sci LibreTexts

2.11: End of Chapter Content

  • Page ID
    • Joylin Namie

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    For Further Exploration

    Costa, James T. 2017. Darwin’s Backyard: How Small Experiments Led to a Big Theory. New York: W.W. Norton.

    Darwin, Charles. 1905. The Voyage of the Beagle. (Originally published in 1839 as Journal and Remarks). [Author’s note: Several editions exist with different publishers, including illustrated editions, paperback editions, and e-books.]

    Moore, John A. 1993. Science as a Way of Knowing: The Foundations of Modern Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


    Al-Haytham, Ibn. 1011-1021. Kitāb al-Manāẓir (Book of Optics). Cairo, Egypt.

    Al-Jahiz. 776–868 CE. Kitab al-Hayawan (Book of Animals).

    Andrews, Tessa M., Steven T. Kalinowski, and Mary J. Leonard. 2011. “Are Humans Evolving? A Classroom Discussion to Change Students’ Misconceptions Regarding Natural Selection.” Evolution: Education and Outreach 4 (3): 456–466.

    Aristotle. 384-322 BCE. History of Animals.

    Asghar, Anila, Salman Hameed, and Najme Kashani Farahani. 2014. “Evolution in Biology Textbooks: A Comparative Analysis of Five Muslim Countries.” Religion & Education 41 (1). Accessed February 12, 2023.

    Associated Press. January 10, 2023. “Forest Lizards Have Genetically Morphed To Survive Life In The City, Researchers Say.” National Public Radio (NPR). Retrieved February 19, 2023 from

    Burkhardt, Richard W. 2013. “Lamarck, Evolution, and the Inheritance of Acquired Characters.” Genetics 194 (4): 793–805.

    Chen, Xiqun, Danielle Feng, Michael A. Schwartzchild, and Xiang Gao. 2017. “Red Hair, MC1R Variants, and Risk for Parkinson’s Disease—A Meta-Analysis.” Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology 4 (3): 212–216.

    Colliss Harvey, Jacky. 2015. Red: A History of the Redhead. New York: Black Dog & Levanthal.

    Corning, Peter A. 2020. “Beyond the Modern Synthesis: A Framework for a More Inclusive Biological Synthesis.” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 153: 5–12.

    Costa, James T. 2017. Darwin’s Backyard: How Small Experiments Led to a Big Theory. New York: W. W. Norton.

    Crosby, Alfred W., Jr. 2003. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. 30th Anniversary Edition. Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Darwin, Charles. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. First Edition. London: John Murray.

    Darwin, Francis, ed. 2001[1897]. The Life & Letters of Charles Darwin, vol. 2. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific.

    Desilver, Drew. 2017. “U.S. Students’ Academic Achievement Still Lags That of Their Peers in Many Other Countries.” Pew Research Center, February 15. Accessed May 25, 2022.

    Devuyst, Olivier. 2014. “High Time for Human Height.” Peritoneal Dialysis International 34 (7):685–686.

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Biological Series (Volume 11). New York: Columbia University Press.

    Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne. 2014. An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States. Boston: Beacon.

    El-Zaher, Sumaya. 2018. “The Father of the Theory of Evolution: Al-Jahiz and His Book of Animals.”, October 9. Accessed August 27, 2022.

    Elshakry, Marwa. 2010. “When Science Became Western: Historiographical Reflections.” ISIS 101 (1). Accessed November 20, 2022.

    Gladwell, Malcolm. 2007. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. New York: Back Bay

    Guadagno, Rosanna E., Bradley M. Okdie, and Sara A. Kruse. 2012. “Dating Deception: Gender, Online Dating, and Exaggerated Self-Presentation.” Computers in Human Behavior 28 (2): 642–647.

    Harmon, Katherine. 2011. “Evolution Abroad: Creationism Evolves in Science Classrooms around the Globe.” Scientific American, March 3. Accessed May 25, 2022.

    Harrison, Ellie. 2018. “This is What the Perfect Body Looks Like – According to Science.” Accessed June 14, 2023.

    Hatton, Tim. 2014. “Why Did Humans Grow Four Inches in 100 Years? It Wasn’t Just Diet.” The Conversation, May 1.

    Hays, J. N. 2005. Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

    Hutton, James. 1788. Theory of the Earth. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Volume 1. Scotland: Royal Society of Edinburgh.

    IPCC. 2022. Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, M. Tignor, E.S. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Craig, S. Langsdorf, S. Löschke, V. Möller, A. Okem, and B. Rama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Jones, Stephen. 2017. “Religion, Science, and Evolutionary Theory”[an interview with Salman Hameed]. Podcast, The Religious Studies Project, January 30. Accessed May 29, 2023. https://www.religiousstudiesproject....ionary-theory/.

    Kutschera, Ulrich, and Karl J. Niklas. 2004. “The Modern Theory of Biological Evolution: An Expanded Synthesis.” Naturwissenschaften 91: 255–276.

    Leclerc, Georges-Louis, Comte de Buffon. 1749-1804. Histoire Naturelle. Volumes 1-36. Paris: Imprimerie Royale (Royal Printing House).

    Lents, Nathan H. 2018. Human Errors: A Panorama of Our Glitches, from Pointless Bones to Broken Genes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

    Lerner, Lawrence S. 2000. Good Science, Bad Science: Teaching Evolution in the States. Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation.

    Lieberman, Daniel E. 2011. The Evolution of the Human Head. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Lindberg, David C. 1992. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

    Linnaeus, Carl. 1736. Systema Naturae. First Edition. Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius.

    Love, Shayla. 2020. “A Thousand Years before Darwin, Islamic Scholars Were Writing about Evolution.” VICE World News, October 5. Accessed August 27, 2022.

    Main, Douglas. 2013. “Ancient Mutation Explains Missing Wisdom Teeth.” Live Science, March 13.

    Malthus, Thomas Robert. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: J. Johnson.

    Masci, David. 2019. “For Darwin Day, 6 Facts About the Evolution Debate.” Pew Research Center. Accessed June 14, 2023.

    Masood, Ehsan. 2009. “Islam’s Evolutionary Legacy.” The Guardian, March 1. Accessed February 13, 2023.

    Miller, Jon D., Eugenie C. Scott, Mark S. Ackerman, Belen Laspra, Glenn Branch, Carmelo Polino, and Jordan S. Huffaker. 2022. “Public Acceptance of Evolution in the United States, 1985–2020.” Public Understanding of Science 31 (2): 223–238.

    Miller, Jon D., Eugenie C. Scott, and Shinji Okamoto. 2006, August 11. “Public Acceptance of Evolution.” Science 313 (5788): 765-766. DOI: 10.1126/science.1126746.

    Moore, John A. 1993. Science as a Way of Knowing: The Foundations of Modern Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Moore, Michael P., Kaitlyn Hersch, Chanont Sricharoen, Sarah Lee, Caitlin Reice, Paul Rice, Sophie Kronick, Kim A. Medley, and Kasey D. Fowler-Finn. 2021. “Sex-Specific Ornament Evolution Is a Consistent Feature of Climatic Adaptation across Space and Time in Dragonflies.” PNAS 118 (28): e2101458118.

    National Public Radio. 2023. “Forest Lizards Have Genetically Morphed to Survive Life in the City, Researchers Say.” National Public Radio (NPR), January 10. Accessed February 19, 2023.

    National Science Foundation. 2023. “Urban Lizards Share Genomic Markers Not Found in Forest-Dwellers.” National Science Foundation, February 7. Accessed May 25, 2023.

    Novembre, John, Alison P. Galvani, and Montgomery Slatkin. 2005. “The Geographic Spread of the CCR5 Δ32 HIV-Resistance Allele.” PLoS Biology 3 (11): e339.

    Pamuk, Şevket. 2007. “The Black Death and the Origins of the ‘Great Divergence’ across Europe, 1300–1600.” European Review of Economic History 11 (3): 289–317.

    Paterlini, Marta. 2007. “There Shall Be Order: The Legacy of Linnaeus in the Age of Molecular Biology.” EMBO Reports 8 (9): 814–816.

    Pew Research Center. 2019. “Darwin in America: The Evolution Debate in the United States.” Pew Research Center, February 6, 2019. Accessed June 13, 2023.

    Pew Research Center. 2014. “Fighting Over Darwin, State by State.” Pew Research Center, February 4, 2009; updated February 3, 2014. Accessed May 25, 2022.

    Plutynski, Anya. 2009. “The Modern Synthesis.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, November 15 (updated December 14, 2009). Accessed November 27, 2022.

    Plutzer, Eric, Glenn Branch, and Ann Reid. 2020. “Teaching Evolution in the U.S. Public Schools: A Continuing Challenge.” Evolution: Education and Outreach13: Article 14. https://evolution-outreach.biomedcen...52-020-00126-8.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). 2023. “How Lizards Adapt to Urban Living.” Science Sessions Podcast, February 13, . Accessed February 19, 2023.

    Public Broadcasting System. 2001. “Georges Cuvier.” WGBH Evolution Library. Accessed May 26, 2022. :~:text=With%20elegant%20studies%20of%20the,as%20incontrovertible%20proof%20of %20extinctions.

    Ray, John. 1686-1704. Historia plantarum. London: Clark. Volume 1 (1686), Volume II (1688), Volume III (1704).

    Richards, Richard A. 1998. “Darwin, Domestic Breeding, and Artificial Selection.” Endeavour 22 (3): 106–109.

    Solloch, Ute V., Kathrin Lang, Vinzenz Lange, and Irena Böhme. 2017. “Frequencies of Gene Variant CCR5-Δ32 in 87 Countries Based on Next-Generation Sequencing of 1.3 Million Individuals Sampled from 3 National DKMS Donor Centers.” Human Immunology 78 (11–12): 701-717.

    Stewart, Thomas A., Justin B. Lemberg, Ailis Daly, Edward B. Daeschler, and Neil H. Shubin. 2022. “A New Epistostegalian from the Late Devonian of the Canadian Arctic.” Nature 608 (7923): 563–568.

    Tasci, Ufuk Necat. 2020. “How a 10-Century Muslim Physicist Discovered How Humans See.” TRT World, May 25. Accessed May 18, 2022.

    Tbakhi, Abdelghani, and Samir S. Amr. 2007. “Ibn Al-Haytham: Father of Modern Optics.” Annals of Saudi Medicine 27 (6): 464–467. UNAIDS. 2021. “Global HIV & AIDS Statistics—Fact Sheet.” 2015. “International Year of Light: Ibn al Haytham, Pioneer of Modern Optics celebrated at UNESCO.” UNESCO, September 8. Accessed May 18, 2022.

    University of California Berkeley Museum of Paleontology. N.d. “The History of Evolutionary Thought—Uniformitarianism: Charles Lyell.” Understanding Evolution website. Accessed February 13, 2023.

    University of Cambridge. N.d. “Darwin and Dogs.” The Darwin Correspondence Project website. Accessed February 17, 2023.

    Urbach, Peter Michael, Anthony M. Quinton, and Kathleen Marguerite Lea. “Francis Bacon: British Author, Philosopher, and Statesman.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. Last updated May 12, 2023.

    Ward, Peter. 2018. Lamarck’s Revenge: How Epigenetics Is Revolutionizing Our Understandingof Evolution’s Past and Present. New York: Bloomsbury.

    Weismann, August. 1892. Das Keimplasma: Eine Theorie der Vererbung (The Germ Plasm: a Theory of Inheritance). Jena (Germany): Fischer.

    Weismann, August. 1889. Translations. Essays upon Heredity. Oxford: Clarendon. Accessed November 27, 2022. E-copy available at

    Winchell, Kristen M., Shane C. Campbell-Staton, Jonathan B. Losos, and Anthony Geneva. 2023. “Genome-Wide Parallelism Underlies Contemporary Adaptation In Urban Lizards.” PNAS 120 (3): e2216789120.

    Wood, Bernard. 2005. Human Evolution: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Zou, Yawen. 2015. “The Germ-Plasm: a Theory of Heredity (1893), by August Weismann.” Embryo Project Encyclopedia, January 26. Accessed February 18, 2023.

    Image Descriptions

    Figure 2.11: A simple world map with a line depicting the ocean route that the H.M.S. Beagle took, and the ports visited. Leaving Plymouth (Europe), the ship traveled south past Africa, around most of the coastline of South America, then around the southern sides of Australia and Africa, before returning briefly to South America and then Europe. Ports noted on the map include Plymouth (Europe); Teneriffa (Africa), Kap Verde, Salvador da Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Falklandinseln, Valparaiso, Callao Lima, Galápagos-Inseln Kap Verde (South America); Sydney, Hobart, King George Sound (Australia), Kokosinseln, Mauritius (Southeast Asian Islands); Kapstadt (Africa); Salvador da Bahia (South America); Azoren (Atlantic Island); Plymouth (Europe).

    Figure 2.19: Grayscale political map of Europe on a blue background. The percentage of individuals with the CCR5-delta 32 allele is printed on each nation. Albania: 5.5%; Algeria: 5.0%; Armenia: 3.3%; Austria: 9.7%; Azerbaijan: 4.0%; Belarus: 10.2%; Belgium: 9.9%; Bosnia-Herzegovina: 8.1%; Bulgaria: 7.1%; Chile:12.0%; Croatia : 7.5%; Czech Republic: 10.7%; Denmark: 12.3%; Eritrea: 0.3%; Estonia: 15.6%; Faroe Islands: 9.9%; Finland: 12.9%; France: 10.6%; Georgia: 4.2%; Germany: 11.1%; Greece: 5.2%; Hungary: 11.2%; Ireland: 12.4%; Italy: 6.3%; Kazakhstan: 10.3%; Latvia: 15.1%; Lithuania: 12.1%; Luxembourg: 9.2%; Macedonia: 5.2%; Morocco: 3.3%; Moldova: 12.1%; Montenegro: 11.1%; Netherlands: 10.3%; Norway: 16.4%; Poland: 10.6%; Romania: 8.8%; Russia: 10.9%; Serbia: 7.0%; Slovakia: 9.4%; Slovenia: 7.1%; Spain: 8.1%; Switzerland: 9.4%; Tunisia: 3.9%; Turkey: 3.4%; Ukraine: 9.8%; United Kingdom: 11.8%.

    Figure 2.20: Political map of the world on a white oval background. Unlabeled nations are color coded by the percentage of individuals with HIV/AIDS. Colors range from no-data (gray), and shades of pink and red. Categories are from lightest pink: x < 0.2%, 0.2% ≤ x < 0.5%, 0.5% ≤ x < 1%, 1% ≤ x < 2%, 2% ≤ x < 3%, 3% ≤ x < 5%, 5% ≤ x < 10%, 10% ≤ x < 15%, 15% ≤ x < 20%, 20% ≤ x. The lightest shades of pink are in North Africa, the Middle east, Australia, and parts of Europe. The darkest shades are found in sub saharan Africa, particularly in the most southern and eastern regions.

    This page titled 2.11: End of Chapter Content is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Joylin Namie (Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.