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5.7: End of Chapter Content

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    • Stephanie Etting

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    For Further Exploration

    Animal Diversity Web. This website is hosted by the Zoology Department at the University of Michigan. It has photographs of skulls, teeth, hands, arms, and feet of many primate species.

    eSkeletons. This website is hosted by the Department of Anthropology at University of Texas, Austin. It is an interactive website where you can compare specific bones from different species of primates.

    Fleagle, John G. 2013. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Third edition. San Diego: Academic Press.

    Fuentes, Agustín, and Kimberley J. Hockings. 2010. “The Ethnoprimatological Approach in Primatology.” American Journal of Primatology 72 (10): 841–847.

    Rowe, Noel. 1996. Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Charlestown, RI: Pogonias Press.

    Whitehead, Paul F., William K. Sacco, and Susan B. Hochgraf. 2005. A Photographic Atlas for Physical Anthropology. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing.


    Balolia, Katharine L., Christophe Soligo, and Bernard Wood. 2017. “Sagittal Crest Formation in Great Apes and Gibbons.” Journal of Anatomy 230 (6): 820–832.

    Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R., Marcel Cardillo, Kate E. Jones, Ross D. E. MacPhee, Robin M. D. Beck, Richard Grenyer, Samantha A. Price, Rutger A. Vos, John L. Gittleman, and Andy Purvis. 2007. “The Delayed Rise of Present-Day Mammals.” Nature 446 (7135): 507–512.

    Burton, Michael L., Carmella C. Moore, John W. M. Whiting, A. Kimball Romney, David F. Aberle, Juan A. Barcelo, Malcolm M. Dow, et al. 1996. “Regions Based on Social Structure.” Current Anthropology 37 (1): 87–123.

    Chivers, David J., and C. M. Hladik. 1980. “Morphology of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Primates: Comparisons with Other Mammals in Relation to Diet.” Journal of Morphology 166 (3): 337–386.

    Clutton-Brock, T. H., and Paul H. Harvey. 1980. “Primates, Brains, and Ecology.” Journal of Zoology 190 (3): 309–323.

    Dunbar, Robin I. M. 1998. “The Social Brain Hypothesis.” Evolutionary Anthropology 6 (5): 178–190.

    Ebersberger, Ingo, Dirk Metzler, Carsten Schwarz, and Svante Pääbo. 2002. “Genomewide Comparison of DNA Sequences Between Humans and Chimpanzees.” American Journal of Human Genetics 70 (6): 1490–1497.

    Jameson, Natalie M., Zhuo-Cheng Hou, Kirstin N. Sterner, Amy Weckle, Morris Goodman, Michael E. Steiper, and Derek E. Wildman. 2011. “Genomic Data Reject the Hypothesis of a Prosimian Primate Clade.” Journal of Human Evolution 61 (3): 295–305.

    Kawamura, Shoji, Chihiro Hiramatsu, Amanda D. Melin, Colleen M. Schaffner, Filippo Aureli, and Linda M. Fedigan. 2012. “Polymorphic Color Vision in Primates: Evolutionary Considerations.” In Post-Genome Biology of Primates, edited by H. Irai, H. Imai, and Y. Go, 93–120. Tokyo: Springer.

    Matsui, Atsushi, Felix Rakotondraparany, Isao Munechika, Masami Hasegawa, and Satoshi Horai. 2009. “Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Prosimians Based on Complete Sequences of Mitochondrial DNAs.” Gene 441 (1–2): 53–66.

    Nater, Alexander, Maja P. Mattle-Greminger, Anton Nurcahyo, Matthew G. Nowak, Marc de Manuel, Tariq Desai, Colin Groves, et al. 2017. “Morphometric, Behavioral, and Genomic Evidence for a New Orangutan Species.” Current Biology 27 (22): 3487–3498.

    Pozzi, Luca, Jason A. Hodgson, Andrew S. Burrell, Kirstin N. Sterner, Ryan L. Raaum, and Todd R. Disotell. 2014. “Primate Phylogenetic Relationships and Divergence Dates Inferred from Complete Mitochondrial Genomes.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 75: 165–183.

    Remis, Melissa J. 1997. “Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) as Seasonal Frugivores: Use of Variable Resources.” American Journal of Primatology 43 (2): 87–109.

    Richmond, Brian G., David R. Begun, and David S. Strait. 2001. “Origin of Human Bipedalism: The Knuckle‐Walking Hypothesis Revisited.” AmericanJournal of Physical Anthropology 116 (S33): 70–105.

    Robson, Shannen L., Carel P. van Schaik, and Kristen Hawkes. 2006. “The Derived Features of Human Life History.” In The Evolution of Human Life History, edited by Kristen Hawkes and Richard R. Paine, 17–44. Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Scally, Aylwyn, Julien Y. Dutheil, LaDeana W. Hillier, Gregory E. Jordan, Ian Goodhead, Javier Herrero, Asger Hobolth, et al. 2012. “Insights into Hominid Evolution from the Gorilla Genome Sequence.” Nature 483 (7388): 169–175.

    Schneider, Horacio, and Iracilda Sampaio. 2015. “The Systematics and Evolution of New World Primates: A Review.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 82 (B): 348–357.

    Setchell, Joanna M., Phyllis C. Lee, E. Jean Wickings, and Alan F. Dixson. 2001. “Growth and Ontogeny of Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx).” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 115 (4): 349–360.

    Utami, Sri Suci, Benoît Goossens, Michael W. Bruford, Jan R. de Ruiter, and Jan A. R. A. M. van Hooff. 2002. “Male Bimaturism and Reproductive Success in Sumatran Orang-utans.” Behavioral Ecology 13 (5): 643–652.

    Vasey, Natalie. 2006. “Impact of Seasonality and Reproduction on Social Structure, Ranging Patterns, and Fission–Fusion Social Organization in Red Ruffed Lemurs.” In Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation, edited by Lisa Gould and Michelle L. Sauther, 275–304. New York: Springer.

    Wright, Patricia C. 1999. “Lemur Traits and Madagascar Ecology: Coping with an Island Environment.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 110 (S29): 31–72.


    The author would very much like to thank the editors for the opportunity to contribute to this textbook, along with anonymous reviewers who provided useful feedback on earlier drafts of this chapter. She would particularly like to thank Karin Enstam Jaffe for her support and encouragement during the writing of this chapter and its revision. Most of all, the author would like to thank all of the Introduction to Biological Anthropology students that she has had over the years who have listened to her lecture endlessly on these animals that she finds so fascinating and who have helped her to hone her pedagogy in a field that she loves.

    Image Descriptions

    Figure 5.14: A branching diagram illustrates the classification level (order, suborder, infraorder and/or superfamily) and relationships of different types of primates. Primates (order) divide into Strepsirrhini and Haplorrhini (suborder). Strepsirrhini include Lemuroidea and Lorisoidea (superfamily). Haplorrhini include Tarsiiformes, Platyrrhini, and Catarrhini (Infraorder). Catarrhini include Cercopithecoidea (both leaf monkeys and cheek pouch monkeys) and Hominoidea (superfamily). Example primates include:

    • Lemuroidea (Strepsirrhini): ring-tailed lemurs, aye-ayes, indris, mouse lemurs, sportive lemurs.
    • Lorisoidea (Strepsirrhini): lorises, pottos, galagos.
    • Tarsiiformes (Haplorrhini): tarsiers.
    • Platyrrhini (Haplorrhini): capuchin monkeys, owl monkeys, spider monkeys, howler monkeys, marmosets, and tamarins.
    • “Leaf monkeys” (Haplorrhini, Catarrhini, Cercopithecoidea): langurs, proboscis monkey, colobus monkey.
    • “Cheek Pouch monkeys” (Haplorrhini, Catarrhini, Cercopithecoidea): guenons, macaques, baboons.
    • Hominoidea (Haplorrhini, Hominoidea): gibbons and siamangs, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos, humans.

    This page titled 5.7: End of Chapter Content is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Stephanie Etting (Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform.