Primates are socially complex, extremely intelligent, and highly adaptable. In this chapter we discussed aspects of primate ecology, including how body size and characteristics of food affect what primates eat and how primates interact with other species in their environment. We examined why primates live in groups, the types of groups in which they are found, and the reproductive strategies used by males and females to maximize reproductive success. Like other aspects of their behavior, primate communication is varied and complex, and we discussed how primates communicate using vocal, visual, olfactory, and tactile signals. Finally, we explored the question of culture among nonhuman primates and learned that some species have cultural traditions, distinctive patterns of behavior shared by multiple individuals in a social group that persist over time. Humans and other primates are similar in many ways. Learning about principles of primate ecology and behavior can help us better understand our own behavior and the behaviors of our extinct relatives.