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6.10: End of Chapter Content

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    • Karin Enstam Jaffe

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    For Further Exploration

    Goodall, Jane. 1971. In the Shadow of Man. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Rowe, Noel, and Marc Myers, eds. 2016. All the World’s Primates. Charleston, RI: Pogonias Press.

    Strier, Karen B. 2017. Primate Behavioral Ecology. 5th ed. New York: Routledge.

    Primate Info Net is an information service of the National Primate Research Center at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. It includes Primate Factsheets, primate news and publications, a list of primate-related jobs, and an international directory of primatology, among other information.

    Primate Specialist Group is a collection of scientists and conservationists who work in dozens of African, Asian, and Latin American nations to promote research on primate conservation.

    Short videos of some primate behaviors discussed in this chapter:


    Aich, H., R. Moos-Heilen, and E. Zimmermann. 1990. “Vocalizations of Adult Gelada Baboons (Theropithecus gelada): Acoustic Structure and Behavioural Context.” Folia Primatologica 55 (3–4): 109–132.

    Bell, Sarah A. 2017. “Galdikas, Birute.” In The International Encyclopedia of Primatology, Volume A–G, edited by Agustín Fuentes, 445–446. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.

    Boinski, S. 1992. “Olfactory Communication among Costa Rican Squirrel Monkeys: A Field Study.” Folia Primatologica 59 (3): 127–136.

    Cheney, D. L., and R. M. Seyfarth. 1987. “The Influence of Intergroup Competition on the Survival and Reproduction of Female Vervet Monkeys.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 21 (6): 375–386.

    de Oliveira Terceiro, Francisco Edvaldo, and Judith M. Burkart. 2019. “Cooperative Breeding.” In Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior, edited by Jennifer Vonk and Todd Shackelford, 1–6. Edinburg, Scotland: Springer Cham.

    Digby, Leslie J., Stephen F. Ferrari, and Wendy Saltzman. 2011. “Callitrichines: The Role of Competition in Cooperatively Breeding Species.” In Primates in Perspective, edited by Christina J. Campbell, AugustÍn Fuentes, Katherine C. MacKinnon, Simon K. Bearder, and Rebecca M. Stumpf, 91–10. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Fischer, Julia, Kurt Hammerschmidt, Dorothy L. Cheney, and Robert M. Seyfarth. 2008. “Acoustic Features of Female Chacma Baboon Barks.” Ethology 107 (1): 33–54.

    Jolly, Alison. 1966. Lemur Behavior: A Madagascar Field Study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Krief, Sabrina, Claude Marcel Hladik, and Claudie Haxaire. 2005. “Ethnomedicinal and Bioactive Properties of Plants Ingested by Wild Chimpanzees in Uganda.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 110 (1–3): 1–15.

    Maekawa, Mkio, Annette Lanjouw, Eugène Rutagarama, and Doublas Sharp. 2013. “Mountain Gorilla Tourism Generating Wealth and Peace in Post-Conflict Rwanda.” Natural Resources Forum 37 (2): 127–137.

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro. 2015. “Sweet-Potato Washing Revisited: 50th Anniversary of the Primates Article.” Primates 56: 285–287.

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro. 2018. “Hot-Spring Bathing of Wild Monkeys in Shiga-Heights: Origin and Propagation of a Cultural Behavior.” Primates 59: 209–213.

    McGrew, W. C. 1998. “Culture in Nonhuman Primates?” Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 301–328.

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S. 1988. “Olfactory Demarcation of Territorial but Not Home Range Boundaries by Lemur catta.” Folia Primatologica 50 (3–4): 175–187.

    Pinacho-Guendulain, B., and G. Ramos-Fernández. 2017. “Influence of Fruit Availability on the Fission-Fusion Dynamics of Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).” International Journal of Primatology 38: 466–484.

    Poirotte, Clémence, François Massol, Anaïs Herbert, Eric Willaume, Pacelle M. Bomo, Peter M. Kappeler, and Marie J. E. Charpentier. 2017. “Mandrills Use Olfaction to Socially Avoid Parasitized Conspicifics.” Science Advances 3 (4): e160172.

    Rodrigues, Michelle. 2019. “It’s Time to Stop Lionizing Dian Fossey as a Conservation Hero.” Lady Science website, September 20. Accessed December 14, 2022.

    Samuni, Liran, Anna Preis, Tobias Deschner, Catherine Crockford, and Roman M. Wittig. 2018. “Reward of Labor Coordination and Hunting Success in Wild Chimpanzees.” Communications Biology 1: 138.

    Santana, Sharlene E., Jessica Lynch Alfaro, and Michael E. Alfaro. 2012. “Adaptive Evolution of Facial Colour Patterns in Neotropical Primates.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279 (1736): 2204–2211.

    Sanz, Crickette M., David Strait, Crepin Eyana Ayina, Jean Marie Massamba, Thierry Fabrice Ebombi, Severin Ndassoba Kialiema, Delon Ngoteni, et al. 2022. “Interspecific Interactions Between Sympatric Apes.” iScience 25 (10): 105059.

    Schön Ybarra, M. A. 1986. “Loud Calls of Adult Male Red Howling Monkeys (Alouatta seniculus).” Folia Primatologica 47 (4): 204–216.

    Setchell, Joanna M., Tessa Smith, E. Jean Wickings, and Leslie A. Knapp. 2008. “Social Correlates of Testosterone and Ornamentation in Male Mandrills.” Hormones and Behavior 54 (3): 365–372.

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    Seyfarth, R. M., D. L. Cheney, and P. Marler. 1980a. “Monkey Responses to Three Different Alarm Calls: Evidence of Predator Classification and Semantic Communication.” Science 210 (4471): 801–803.

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    Zuberbühler, Klaus, Ronald Noë, and Robert M. Seyfarth. 1997. “Diana Monkey Long-Distance Calls: Messages for Conspecifics and Predators.” Animal Behaviour 53 (3): 589–604.


    The author is grateful to the editors for the opportunity to contribute to this open-source textbook. She thanks Dr. Stephanie Etting for her encouragement and support during the revision of this chapter. Her suggestions, along with comments made by two anonymous reviewers on an earlier draft of this chapter, improved the final version considerably. Finally, she thanks all the primatologists who came before her, especially her advisor, Lynne A. Isbell, for their tireless efforts to understand the behavior and ecology of the living primates. Without their work, this chapter would not have been possible.

    Image Descriptions

    Figure 6.10a: Open circle contains three regions (open ovals), each of which have one dot (adult female). There is one square (adult male) that overlaps these three regions. Outside the circle are three squares (adult males).

    Figure 6.14a: Top circle contains four squares (adult males) and six open ovals (female home range) each with a dot (adult female). Bottom circle contains six dots (adult females) and four squares (adult males).

    This page titled 6.10: End of Chapter Content is shared under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Karin Enstam Jaffe (Society for Anthropology in Community Colleges) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform.