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16.7: Summary, key terms and references

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    Chapter summary

    Standardized tests are developed by a team of experts and are administered in standard ways. They are used for a variety of educational purposes including accountability. Most elementary and middle school teachers are likely to be responsible for helping their students attain state content standards and achieve proficiency on criterion referenced achievement tests.

    In order for teachers to interpret test scores and communicate that information to students and parents they have to understand basic information about measures of central tendency and variability, the normal distribution, and several kinds of test scores. Current evidence suggests that standardized tests can be biased against certain groups and that many teachers tailor their curriculum and classroom tests to match the standardized tests.

    Key terms

    Achievement tests Median
    Aptitude tests Mode
    Criterion referenced tests Norm referenced tests
    Diagnostic tests Range
    Frequency distribution Standard deviation
    Grade equivalent scores Stanine
    High stakes tests Z-score

    On the Internet

    The National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) at UCLA focuses on research and development that improves assessment and accountability systems. It has resources for researchers, K-12 teachers, and policy makers on the implications of NCLB as well as classroom assessment.

    This is the home page of Educational Testing Services (ETS) which administers the PRAXIS II series of tests and has links to the testing requirements for teachers seeking licensure in each state District of Columbia and the US Virgin Islands.


    Seifert, K. and Sutton, R. (2009). Educational Psychology. Saylor Foundation. (Chapter 12) Retrieved from

    16.7: Summary, key terms and references is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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