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    adjustment of a schema by changing a scheme to accommodate new information different from what was already known
    period of development that begins at puberty and ends at early adulthood
    maturing of the adrenal glands
    advance directive
    a written legal document that details specific interventions a person wants (see living will)
    adjustment of a schema by adding information similar to what is already known
    long-standing connection or bond with others
    authoritarian parenting style
    parents place a high value on conformity and obedience, are often rigid, and express little warmth to the child
    authoritative parenting style
    parents give children reasonable demands and consistent limits, express warmth and affection, and listen to the child’s point of view
    avoidant attachment
    characterized by child’s unresponsiveness to parent, does not use the parent as a secure base, and does not care if parent leaves
    cognitive development
    domain of lifespan development that examines learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity
    cognitive empathy
    ability to take the perspective of others and to feel concern for others
    when a sperm fertilizes an egg and forms a zygote
    concrete operational stage
    third stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from about 7 to 11 years old, children can think logically about real (concrete) events
    idea that even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size, volume, or number as long as nothing is added or removed
    continuous development
    view that development is a cumulative process: gradually improving on existing skills
    critical (sensitive) period
    time during fetal growth when specific parts or organs develop
    developmental milestone
    approximate ages at which children reach specific normative events
    discontinuous development
    view that development takes place in unique stages, which happen at specific times or ages
    disorganized attachment
    characterized by the child’s odd behavior when faced with the parent; type of attachment seen most often with kids that are abused
    do not resuscitate (DNR)
    a legal document stating that if a person stops breathing or their heart stops, medical personnel such as doctors and nurses are not to take steps to revive or resuscitate the patient
    preoperational child’s difficulty in taking the perspective of others
    newly defined period of lifespan development from 18 years old to the mid-20s; young people are taking longer to complete college, get a job, get married, and start a family
    emerging adulthood
    memories that are not part of our consciousness
    fine motor skills
    use of muscles in fingers, toes, and eyes to coordinate small actions
    formal operational stage
    final stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from age 11 and up, children are able to deal with abstract ideas and hypothetical situations
    maturing of the sex glands
    gross motor skills
    use of large muscle groups to control arms and legs for large body movements
    health care proxy
    a legal document that appoints a specific person to make medical decisions for a patient if they are unable to speak for themselves
    service that provides a death with dignity; pain management in a humane and comfortable environment; usually outside of a hospital setting
    living will
    a written legal document that details specific interventions a person wants; may include health care proxy
    beginning of menstrual period; around 12–13 years old
    process of cell division
    motor skills
    ability to move our body and manipulate objects
    genes and biology
    newborn reflexes
    inborn automatic response to a particular form of stimulation that all healthy babies are born with
    normative approach
    study of development using norms, or average ages, when most children reach specific developmental milestones
    environment and culture
    object permanence
    idea that even if something is out of sight, it still exists
    permissive parenting style
    parents make few demands and rarely use punishment
    physical development
    domain of lifespan development that examines growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills, and health and wellness
    structure connected to the uterus that provides nourishment and oxygen to the developing baby
    prenatal care
    medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus
    preoperational stage
    second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from ages 2 to 7, children learn to use symbols and language but do not understand mental operations and often think illogically
    primary sexual characteristics
    organs specifically needed for reproduction
    psychosexual development
    process proposed by Freud in which pleasure-seeking urges focus on different erogenous zones of the body as humans move through five stages of life
    psychosocial development
    domain of lifespan development that examines emotions, personality, and social relationships
    psychosocial development
    process proposed by Erikson in which social tasks are mastered as humans move through eight stages of life from infancy to adulthood
    resistant attachment
    characterized by the child’s tendency to show clingy behavior and rejection of the parent when they attempt to interact with the child
    principle that objects can be changed, but then returned back to their original form or condition
    (plural = schemata) concept (mental model) that is used to help us categorize and interpret information
    secondary sexual characteristics
    physical signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs
    secure attachment
    characterized by the child using the parent as a secure base from which to explore
    secure base
    parental presence that gives the infant/toddler a sense of safety as they explore their surroundings
    sensorimotor stage
    first stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from birth through age 2, a child learns about the world through senses and motor behavior
    socioemotional selectivity theory
    social support/friendships dwindle in number, but remain as close, if not more close than in earlier years
    first male ejaculation
    stage of moral reasoning
    process proposed by Kohlberg; humans move through three stages of moral development
    innate traits that influence how one thinks, behaves, and reacts with the environment
    biological, chemical, or physical environmental agent that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus
    uninvolved parenting style
    parents are indifferent, uninvolved, and sometimes referred to as neglectful; they don’t respond to the child’s needs and make relatively few demands
    structure created when a sperm and egg merge at conception; begins as a single cell and rapidly divides to form the embryo and placent

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