Chapter 12 Learning Objectives
- Identify styles of temperament and explore goodness-of-fit
- Describe the infant emotions, self-awareness, stranger wariness, and separation anxiety
- Describe the early theories of attachment
- Contrast styles of attachment according to the Strange Situation Technique
- Explain the factors that influence attachment
- Use Erikson’s theory to characterize psychosocial development during infancy
- Easy Child (40%) who is able to quickly adapt to routine and new situations, remains calm, is easy to soothe, and usually is in a positive mood.
- Difficult Child (10%) who reacts negatively to new situations, has trouble adapting to routine, is usually negative in mood, and cries frequently.
- Slow-to-Warm-Up Child (15%) has a low activity level, adjusts slowly to new situations and is often negative in mood.
Callstack: at (Bookshelves/Social_Work_and_Human_Services/Remix:_Human_Behavior_and_the_Social_Environment_I_(Tyler)/06:_Development_in_Infancy_and_Toddlerhood/6.03:_Chapter_12-_Psychosocial_Development_in_Infancy_and_Toddlerhood), /content/body/div/div/p/@if, line 1, column 3
Ainsworth, M. (1979). Infant-mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34(10), 932-937.
Akimoto, S. A., & Sanbinmatsu, D. M. (1999). Differences in self-effacing behavior between European and Japanese Americans: Effect on competence evaluations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 159-177.
American Optometric Association. (2019). Infant vision: Birth to 24 months of age. Retrieved from https://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/good-vision-throughout-life/childrens-vision/infant-vision-birth-to-24- months-of-age
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5).
Washington, DC: Author.
Anglin, J. M. (1993). Vocabulary development: A morphological analysis. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58 10), v–165.
Aslin, R. N. (1981). Development of smooth pursuit in human infants. In D. F. Fisher, R. A. Monty, & J. W. Senders (Eds.), Eye movements: Cognition and visual perception (pp. 31– 51). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Atkinson, J., & Braddick, O. (2003). Neurobiological models of normal and abnormal visual development. In M. de Haan & M. H. Johnson (Eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of development (pp. 43– 71). Hove: Psychology Press.
Baillargeon, R. (1987. Object permanence in 3 ½ and 4 ½ year-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 22, 655-664. Baillargeon, R., Li, J., Gertner, Y, & Wu, D. (2011). How do infants reason about physical events? In U. Goswami (Ed.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development. MA: John Wiley.
Balaban, M. T. & Reisenauer, C. D. (2013). Sensory development. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human development (pp. 1144-1147). New, York: Sage Publications.
Baldwin, D. A. (1993). Early referential understanding: Infants’ ability to recognize referential acts for what they are. Developmental Psychology, 29(5), 832–843.
Bartrip J, Morton J, & De Schonen S. (2001). Responses to mother’s face in 3-week to 5-month-old infants. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 219–232
Berk, L. E. (2007). Development through the life span (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Berne, S. A. (2006). The primitive reflexes: Considerations in the infant. Optometry & Vision Development, 37(3), 139-145. Bloem, M. (2007). The 2006 WHO child growth standards. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 334(7596), 705–706. doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39155.658843.BE
Blossom, M., & Morgan, J. L. (2006). Does the face say what the mouth says? A study of infants’ sensitivity to visual prosody. In the 30th annual Boston University conference on language development, Somerville, MA.
Bogartz, R. S., Shinskey, J. L., & Schilling, T. (2000). Object permanence in five-and-a-half month old infants. Infancy, 1(4), 403-428.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss. London: Hogarth Press. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.
Bradshaw, D. (1986). Immediate and prolonged effectiveness of negative emotion expressions in inhibiting infants’ actions (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley.
Braungart-Rieker, J. M., Hill-Soderlund, A. L., &Karrass, J. (2010). Fear, anger reactivity trajectories from 4 to 16 months: The roles of temperament, regulation, and maternal sensitivity. Developmental Psychology, 46, 791-804.
Bushnell, I. W. R. (2001) Mother’s face recognition in newborn infants: Learning and memory. Infant Child Development, 10, 67-94.
Bushnell, I. W. R., Sai, F., Mullin, J. T. (1989). Neonatal recognition of mother’s face. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, 3-15.
Bruer, J. T. (1999). The myth of the first three years: A new understanding of early brain development and lifelong learning. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Campanella, J., & Rovee-Collier, C. (2005). Latent learning and deferred imitation at 3 months. Infancy, 7(3), 243-262. Carlson, N. (2014). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E. A., Tappin, D. M., Vennemann, M. M., Smuk, M., & Carpenter, J. R. (2013). Bed sharing when parents do not smoke: Is there a risk of SIDS? An individual level analysis of five major case–control studies. BMJ Open, 3:e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Breastfeeding facts. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/data/facts.html
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Sudden unexpected infant death and sudden infant death syndrome. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/sids/data.htm
Cheour-Luhtanen, M., Alho. K., Kujala, T., Reinikainen, K., Renlund, M., Aaltonen, O., … & Näätänen R. (1995). Mismatch negativity indicates vowel discrimination in newborns. Hearing Research, 82, 53–58.
Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1996). Temperament: Theory and practice. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Chi, J. G., Dooling, E. C., & Gilles, F. H. (1977). Left-right asymmetries of the temporal speech areas of the human fetus. Archives of Neurology, 34, 346–8.
Chien S. (2011). No more top-heavy bias: Infants and adults prefer upright faces but not top-heavy geometric or face-like patterns. Journal of Vision, 11(6):1–14.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chomsky, N. (1972). Language and mind. NY: Harcourt Brace.
Clark, E. V. (2009). What shapes children’s language? Child-directed speech and the process of acquisition. In V. C. M. Gathercole (Ed.), Routes to language: Essays in honor of Melissa Bowerman. NY: Psychology Press.
Clark, L. A., Kochanska, G., & Ready, R. (2000). Mothers’ personality and its interaction with child temperament as predictors of parenting behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 274–285.
Clemson University Cooperative Extension. (2014). Introducing solid foods to infants. Retrieved from http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/food/nutrition/nutrition/life_stages/hgic4102.html
Cole, P. M., Armstrong, L. M., & Pemberton, C. K. (2010). The role of language in the development of emotional regulation. In S. D. Calkins & M. A. Bell (Eds.). Child development at intersection of emotion and cognition (pp. 59-77). Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Colvin, J.D., Collie-Akers, V., Schunn, C., & Moon, R.Y. (2014). Sleep environment risks for younger and older infants. Pediatrics Online. Retrieved from pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2014/07/09/peds. 2014-0401.full.pdf
de Boysson-Bardies, B., Sagart, L., & Durand, C. (1984). Discernible differences in the babbling of infants according to target language. Journal of Child Language, 11(1), 1–15.
DeCasper, A. J., & Fifer, W. P. (1980). Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mother’s voices. Science, 208, 1174-1176. DeCasper, A. J., & Spence, M. J. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns’ perception of speech sounds. Infant Behavior and Development, 9, 133-150.
Diamond, A. (1985). Development of the ability to use recall to guide actions, as indicated by infants’ performance on AB. Child Development, 56, 868-883.
Dobrich, W., & Scarborough, H. S. (1992). Phonological characteristics of words young children try to say. Journal of Child Language, 19(3), 597–616.
Dubois, J., Hertz-Pannier, L., Cachia, A., Mangin, J. F., Le Bihan, D., & Dehaene-Lambertz, G. (2009). Structural asymmetries in the infant language and sensori-motor networks. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 414–423.
Eisenberg, A., Murkoff, H. E., & Hathaway, S. E. (1989). What to expect the first year. New York: Workman Publishing.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Guthrie, I.K., Murphy, B.C., & Reiser, M. (1999). Parental reactions to children’s negative emotions: Longitudinal relations to quality of children’s social functioning. Child Development, 70, 513-534.
Eisenberg, N., Hofer, C., Spinrad, T., Gershoff, E., Valiente, C., Losoya, S. L., Zhou, Q., Cumberland, A., Liew, J., Reiser, M., & Maxon, E. (2008). Understanding parent-adolescent conflict discussions: Concurrent and across-time prediction from youths’ dispositions and parenting. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 73, (Serial No. 290, No. 2), 1-160.
El-Dib, M., Massaro, A. N., Glass, P., & Aly, H. (2012). Neurobehavioral assessment as a predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. Journal of Perinatology, 32, 299-303.
Eliot, L. (1999). What’s going on in there? New York: Bantam. Erikson, E. (1982). The life cycle completed. NY: Norton & Company.
Evans, N., & Levinson, S. C. (2009). The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(5), 429–448.
Farroni, T., Johnson, M.H. Menon, E., Zulian, L. Faraguna, D., Csibra, G. (2005). Newborns’ preference for face-relevant stimuli: Effects of contrast polarity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(47), 17245-17250.
Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J. (1999). Breastfeeding and later psychosocial adjustment. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 13, 144-157.
Fitzpatrick, E.M., Crawford, L., Ni, A., & Durieux-Smith, A. (2011). A descriptive analysis of language and speech skills in 4-to- 5-yr-old children with hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 32(2), 605-616.
Freud, S. (1938). An outline of psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth.
Galler J. R., & Ramsey F. (1989). A follow-up study of the influence of early malnutrition on development: Behavior at home and at school. American Academy of Child and Adolescence Psychiatry, 28 (2), 254-61.
Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F. C., Morely, D. S., Archer, E., & Salt, P. (1990). The long-term effects of early kwashiorkor compared with marasmus. IV. Performance on the national high school entrance examination. Pediatric Research, 28(3), 235- 239.
Galler, J. R., Ramsey, F. C., Salt, P. & Archer, E. (1987). The long-term effect of early kwashiorkor compared with marasmus. III. Fine motor skills. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology Nutrition, 6, 855-859.
Giedd, J. N. (2015). The amazing teen brain. Scientific American, 312(6), 32-37.
Giles, A., & Rovee-Collier, C. (2011). Infant long-term memory for associations formed during mere exposure. Infant Behavior and Development, 34 (2), 327-338.
Gillath, O., Shaver, P. R., Baek, J. M., & Chun, D. S. (2008). Genetic correlates of adult attachment style. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1396–1405.
Gleitman, L. R., & Newport, E. L. (1995). The invention of language by children: Environmental and biological influences on the acquisition of language. An Invitation to Cognitive Science, 1, 1-24.
Goldin-Meadow, S., & Mylander, C. (1998). Spontaneous sign systems created by deaf children in two cultures. Nature, 391(6664), 279–281.
Grosse, G., Behne, T., Carpenter, M., & Tomasello, M. (2010). Infants communicate in order to be understood. Developmental Psychology, 46(6), 1710-1722.
Gunderson, E. P., Hurston, S. R., Ning, X., Lo, J. C., Crites, Y., Walton, D…. & Quesenberry, C. P. Jr. (2015). Lactation and progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study. American Journal of Medicine, 163, 889-898. Doi: 10.7326/m 15-0807.
Hainline L. (1978). Developmental changes in visual scanning of face and nonface patterns by infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 25, 90–115.
Hamer, R. (2016). The visual world of infants. Scientific American, 104, 98-101. Harlow, H. F. (1958). The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 673-685.
Harris, Y. R. (2005). Cognitive development. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human development (pp. 276-281). New, York: Sage Publications.
Hart, S., & Carrington, H. (2002). Jealousy in 6-month-old infants. Infancy, 3(3), 395-402.
Hatch, E. M. (1983). Psycholinguistics: A second language perspective. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers. Hertenstein, M. J., & Campos, J. J. (2004). The retention effects of an adult’s emotional displays on infant behavior. Child Development, 75(2), 595–613.
Holland, D., Chang, L., Ernst, T., Curan, M Dale, A. (2014). Structural growth trajectories and rates of change in the first 3 months of infant brain development. JAMA Neurology, 71(10), 1266-1274.
Huttenlocher, P. R., & Dabholkar, A. S. (1997). Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 387(2), 167-178.
Hyde, J. S., Else-Quest, N. M., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2004). Children’s temperament and behavior problems predict their employed mothers’ work functioning. Child Development, 75, 580–594.
Hyvärinen, L., Walthes, R., Jacob, N., Nottingham Chaplin, K., & Leonhardt, M. (2014). Current understanding of what infants see. Current Opthalmological Report, 2, 142-149. doi:10.1007/s40135-014-0056-2
Imai, M., Li, L., Haryu, E., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., & Shigematsu, J. (2008). Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese, English, and Japanese children: Universality and language-specificity in novel noun and verb learning. Child Development, 79, 979-1000.
Islami, F., Liu, Y., Jemal, A., Zhou, J., Weiderpass, E., Colditz, G…Weiss, M. (2015). Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk by receptor status – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Oncology, 26, 2398-2407.
Iverson, J. M., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2005). Gesture paves the way for language development. Psychological science, 16(5), 367-371.
Jarrett, C. (2015). Great myths of the brain. West Sussex, UK: Wiley.
Johnson, M. H., & deHaan, M. (2015). Developmental cognitive neuroscience: An introduction. Chichester, West Sussex: UK, Wiley & Sons
Jusczyk, P.W., Cutler, A., & Redanz, N.J. (1993). Infants’ preference for the predominant stress patterns of English words. Child Development, 64, 675–687.
Karlson, E.W., Mandl, L.A., Hankison, S. E., & Grodstein, F. (2004). Do breast-feeding and other reproductive factors influence future risk of rheumatoid arthritis? Arthritis & Rheumatism, 50 (11), 3458-3467.
Kasprian, G., Langs, G., Brugger, P. C., Bittner, M., Weber, M., Arantes, M., & Prayer, D. (2011). The prenatal origin of hemispheric asymmetry: an in utero neuroimaging study. Cerebral Cortex, 21, 1076–1083.
Kiff, C. J., Lengua, L. J., & Zalewski, M. (2011). Nature and nurturing: Parenting in the context of child temperament. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 251–301. doi: 10.1007/s10567-011-0093-4
Klein, P. J., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1999). Long-term memory, forgetting, and deferred imitation in 12-month-old infants. Developmental Science, 2(1), 102-113.
Klinnert, M. D., Campos, J. J., & Sorce, J. F. (1983). Emotions as behavior regulators: Social referencing in infancy. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience (pp. 57–86). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Kolb, B., & Fantie, B. (1989). Development of the child’s brain and behavior. In C. R. Reynolds & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.),
Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology (pp. 17–39). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Kolb, B. & Whishaw, I. Q. (2011). An introduction to brain and behavior (3rd ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Kopp, C. B. (2011). Development in the early years: Socialization, motor development, and consciousness. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 165-187.
Latham, M. C. (1997). Human nutrition in the developing world. Rome, IT: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Lavelli, M., & Fogel, A. (2005). Developmental changes in the relationships between infant attention and emotion during early face-to-face communications: The 2 month transition. Developmental Psychology, 41, 265-280.
Lenneberg, E. (1967). Biological foundations of language. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
LeVine, R. A., Dixon, S., LeVine, S., Richman, A., Leiderman, P. H., Keefer, C. H., & Brazelton, T. B. (1994). Child care and culture: Lessons from Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis, M., & Brooks, J. (1978). Self-knowledge and emotional development. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), Genesis of behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 205-226). New York: Plenum Press.
Lewis, T. L., Maurer, D., & Milewski, A. (1979). The development of nasal detection in young infants. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science Supplement, 19, 271.
Li, Y., & Ding, Y. (2017). Human visual development. In Y. Liu., & W. Chen (Eds.), Pediatric lens diseases (pp. 11-20). Singapore: Springer.
Los Angles County Department of Public Health. (2019). Breastfeeding vs. formula feeding. Retrieved from publichealth.lacounty.gov/LAmoms/lessons/Breastfeeding/6_BreastfeedingvsFormulaFeeding.pdf
Main, M., & Solomon, J. (1990). Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment inthe Preschool Years (pp.121– 160).Chicago,IL: UniversityofChicagoPress.
Mandel, D. R., Jusczyk, P. W., & Pisoni, D. B. (1995). Infants’ recognition of the sound patterns of their own names. Psychological Science, 6(5), 314–317.
Mayberry, R. I., Lock, E., & Kazmi, H. (2002). Development: Linguistic ability and early language exposure. Nature, 417(6884), 38.
Moeller, M.P., & Tomblin, J.B. (2015). An introduction to the outcomes of children with hearing loss study. Ear and Hearing, 36 Suppl (0-1), 4S-13S
Morelli, G., Rogoff, B., Oppenheim, D., & Goldsmith, D. (1992). Cultural variations in infants’ sleeping arrangements: Questions of independence. Developmental Psychology, 28, 604-613.
Nelson, E. A., Schiefenhoevel, W., & Haimerl, F. (2000). Child care practices in nonindustrialized societies. Pediatrics, 105, e75.
O’Connor, T. G., Marvin, R. S., Rotter, M., Olrich, J. T., Britner, P. A., & The English and Romanian Adoptees Study Team. (2003). Child-parent attachment following early institutional deprivation. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 19- 38.
Papousek, M. (2007). Communication in early infancy: An arena of intersubjective learning. Infant Behavior and Development, 30, 258-266.
Pearson Education. (2016). Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition. New York: Pearson. Retrieved from http://www.pearsonclinical.com/childhood/products/100000123/bayley-scales-of-infant-and-toddler-development- third-edition-bayley-iii.html#tab-details
Penfield, W., & Roberts, L. (1959). Speech and brain mechanisms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Petitto, L. A., & Marentette, P. F. (1991). Babbling in the manual mode: Evidence for the ontogeny of language. Science, 251(5000), 1493–1496.
Phelps, B. J. (2005). Habituation. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human development (pp. 597-600). New York: Sage Publications.
Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York: Basic Books.
Pickens, J., Field, T., Nawrocki, T., Martinez, A., Soutullo, D., & Gonzalez, J. (1994). Full-term and preterm infants’ perception of face-voice synchrony. Infant Behavior and Development, 17(4), 447-455.
Porter, R. H., Makin, J. W., Davis, L. M., Christensen, K. (1992). Responsiveness of infants to olfactory cues from lactating females. Infant Behavior and Development, 15, 85-93.
Redondo, C. M., Gago-Dominguez, M., Ponte, S. M., Castelo, M. E., Jiang, X., Garcia, A.A… Castelao, J. E. (2012). Breast feeding, parity and breast cancer subtypes in a Spanish cohort. PLoS One, 7(7): e40543 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.00040543
Richardson, B. D. (1980). Malnutrition and nutritional anthropometry. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 26(3), 80-84. Rothbart, M. K., & Bates, J. E. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.). Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., pp. 99-116). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Rothbart, M. K., Posner, M. I. & Kieras, J. (2006). Temperament, attention, and the development of self-regulation. In M. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds.) Blackwell handbook of early childhood development (pp. 3338-357). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J., Pott, M., Miyake, K., & Morelli, G. (2010). Attachment and culture: Security in the United States and Japan. American Psychologist, 55, 1093-1104.
Rovee-Collier, C. (1987). Learning and memory in infancy. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development, (2nd, ed., pp. 98-148). New York: Wiley.
Rovee-Collier, C. (1990). The “memory system” of prelinguistic infants. Annuals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 517-542. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-66231990.tb48908.
Rovee-Collier, C., & Hayne, H. (1987). Reactivation of infant memory: Implications for cognitive development. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior. (Vol. 20, pp. 185-238). London, UK: Academic Press.
Rymer, R. (1993). Genie: A scientific tragedy. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Salkind, N. J. (2005). Encyclopedia of human development. New York: Sage Publications.
Schwarz, E. B., Brown, J. S., Creasman, J. M. Stuebe, A., McClure, C. K., Van Den Eeden, S. K., & Thom, D. (2010). Lactation and maternal risk of type-2 diabetes: A population-based study. American Journal of Medicine, 123, 863.e1-863.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.03.016.
Seifer, R., Schiller, M., Sameroff, A., Resnick, S., & Riordan, K. (1996). Attachment, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology, 32, 12-25.
Sen, M. G., Yonas, A., & Knill, D. C. (2001). Development of infants’ sensitivity to surface contour information for spatial layout. Perception, 30, 167-176.
Senghas, R. J., Senghas, A., & Pyers, J. E. (2005). The emergence of Nicaraguan Sign Language: Questions of development, acquisition, and evolution. In S. T. Parker, J. Langer, & C. Milbrath (Eds.), Biology and knowledge revisited: From neurogenesis to psychogenesis (pp. 287–306). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Shaffer, D. R. (1985). Developmental psychology: Theory, research, and applications. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Inc. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. NY: Free Press.
Sorce, J. F., Emde, J. J., Campos, J. J., & Klinnert, M. D. (1985). Maternal emotional signaling: Its effect on the visual cliff behavior of 1-year-olds. Developmental Psychology, 21, 195–200.
Spelke, E. S., & Cortelyou, A. (1981). Perceptual aspects of social knowing: Looking and listening in infancy. Infant social cognition, 61-84.
Springer, S. P. & Deutsch, G. (1993). Left brain, right brain (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.
Stika, C.J., Eisenberg, L.S., Johnson, K.C. Henning, S.C., Colson, B.G., Ganguly, D.H., & DesJardin, J.L. (2015). Developmental outcomes of early-identified children who are hard of hearing at 12 to 18 months of age. Early Human Development, 9(1), 47-55.
Stork, F. & Widdowson, J. (1974). Learning about Linguistics. London: Hutchinson.
Thomas, R. M. (1979). Comparing theories of child development. Santa Barbara, CA: Wadsworth.
Thompson, R. A. (2006). The development of the person. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (6th Ed.). New York: Wiley.
Thompson, R. A., & Goodvin, R. (2007). Taming the tempest in the teapot. In C. A. Brownell & C. B. Kopp (Eds.). Socioemotional development in the toddler years: Transitions and transformations (pp. 320-342). New York: Guilford.
Thompson, R. A., Winer, A. C., & Goodvin, R. (2010). The individual child: Temperament, emotion, self, and personality. In M. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: An advanced textbook (6th ed., pp. 423–464). New York, NY: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
Titus-Ernstoff, L., Rees, J. R., Terry, K. L., & Cramer, D. W. (2010). Breast-feeding the last-born child and risk of ovarian cancer. Cancer Causes Control, 21(2), 201-207. doi: 10.1007/s10552-009-9450-8
Tomblin, J. B., Harrison, M., Ambrose, S. E., Walker, E. A., Oleson, J. J., & Moeller, M. P. (2015). Language outcomes in young children with mild to severe hearing loss. Ear and hearing, 36 Suppl 1(0 1), 76S–91S.
United Nations Children’s Fund. (2015). Levels and trends in child mortality: Report 2015. United Nations Children’s Fund. New York: NY.
United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Women’s Health. (2011). Your guide to breast feeding. Washington D.C.
United States National Library of Medicine. (2016). Circumcision. Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/circumcision.html
Van den Boom, D. C. (1994). The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: An experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lower-class mothers with irritable infants. Child Development, 65, 1457–1477.
Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Sagi, A. (1999). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 713-734). New York: Guilford.
Webb, S. J., Monk, C. S., & Nelson, C. A. (2001). Mechanisms of postnatal neurobiological development: Implications for human development. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19, 147-171.
Weekes-Shackelford, V. A. & Shackelford, T. K. (2005). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human development (pp. 1238-1239). New York: Sage Publications.
Werker, J. F., Pegg, J. E., & McLeod, P. J. (1994). A cross-language investigation of infant preference for infant-directed communication. Infant Behavior and Development, 17, 323-333.
Werker, J. F., & Tees, R. C. (2002). Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior and Development, 25, 121-133.
Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective Second Edition by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license.