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6.4: Formal Organizations
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Types of Formal Organizations
Table of Formal Organizations. This table shows Etzioni’s three types of formal organizations. (Table courtesy of Etzioni 1975)
||Normative or Voluntary
|Benefit of Membership
|Type of Membership
|Feeling of Connectedness
The McDonaldization of Society
- A book club
- A church youth group
- A People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) protest group
- A study hall
- High school
- Political party
- A gym
- Because they feel an affinity with others there
- Because they receive a tangible benefit from joining
- Because they have no choice
- Because they feel pressured to do so
- Coercion to join
- Hierarchy of authority
- Explicit rules
- Division of labor
- Increased productivity
- Increased efficiency
- Equal treatment for all
- All of the above
- There is more variety of goods.
- There is less theft.
- There is more worldwide availability of goods.
- There is more opportunity for businesses.
- There is less variety of goods.
- There is an increased need for employees with postgraduate degrees.
- There is less competition so prices are higher.
- There are fewer jobs so unemployment increases.
- formal organizations characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality.
- clear division of labor
- the fact that each individual in a bureaucracy has a specialized task to perform
- coercive organizations
- organizations that people do not voluntarily join, such as prison or a mental hospital
- explicit rules
- the types of rules in a bureaucracy; rules that are outlined, recorded, and standardized
- formal organizations
- large, impersonal organizations
- hierarchy of authority
- a clear chain of command found in a bureaucracy
- the removal of personal feelings from a professional situation
- Iron Rule of Oligarchy
- the theory that an organization is ruled by a few elites rather than through collaboration
- McDonaldization of Society
- the increasing presence of the fast food business model in common social institutions
- a bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on merit—proven and documented skills
- normative or voluntary organizations
- organizations that people join to pursue shared interests or because they provide some intangible rewards
- total institution
- an organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total resocialization occurs
- utilitarian organizations
- organizations that are joined to fill a specific material need