7.1: Functions of Introductions

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Speech introductions are an essential element of an effective public speech. Introductions have specific functions that need to be met in a very short period of time. Introductions must gain the audience’s attention and their goodwill, they must state the purpose of the speech and they must preview the main points.

These first two functions of the introduction, gaining the attention of the audience and the good will of the audience, have most to do with getting the audience to want to listen to you. You need to state your credibility and relate the topic to your audience. The other two functions of the introduction, stating the purpose of the speech (thesis or central idea) and previewing the structure of the speech, have to do with helping the audience understand you.

Gain Attention and Interest

The first function of the introduction is to get the attention AND the interest of the audience. The “and” here is important. Anyone can walk into a room full of people sitting quietly, and YELL AT THE TOP OF THEIR LUNGS. That will get attention. However, it will probably not garner much interest—at least not much positive interest. Gaining attention and interest is essential if you want the audience to listen to what you have to say, and audiences will decide fairly quickly if they want to pay attention.

Table $$\PageIndex{1}$$: Strategies for Gaining the Audience’s Attention
Strategy Examples

Tell a Story

Human beings love stories. They can be real or hypothetical; concluded in the introduction, or used as a cliffhanger; vivid language and descriptions, paired with timing and pace are key when telling a story.

Use a Reference

• Previous speeches: Referencing speeches that happened just before yours can build credibility as you demonstrate your understanding of the topic and your ability to make connections.

• Personal interest: By showing your experience and interest in the topic your enthusiasm sets a positive tone for the audience, and you enhance your credibility based on your knowledge.

• Historical or recent events: Referencing these events connects the audience to the topic and provides the context that will be elaborated on in your speech.

• Current occasion: Referring to the occasion is often used as an introduction to tribute speeches, toasts, dedication ceremonies and historical events.

Startle the Audience

• Use a startling statistic. You can use a real statistic that brings attention to the importance of your topic. Make sure it is accurate and relevant.

Use a Quotation

A quote from a well-known, or lesser known, author can be effective if it nicely sets up your speech topic and is something to which your audience can relate. More well-known authors enhance your credibility.

• Rhetorical questions: are designed to allow you to get the audience to think about your topic without actually answering the question.

• Real questions: Using questions that ask for real responses can work if a speaker feels comfortable with his or her audience, and is able to handle some impromptu situations based their response.

Use a Visual Aid

• A size appropriate photo can effectively introduce your topic.

• A video from YouTube or a DVD that relates to your topic can show the audience content that brings them into the speech without you having to say anything.

• Using other visual aids, such as doing a Tahitian dance when you are going to speak about Tahiti, or juggling to introduce your process speech on juggling can be entertaining and capture the attention and interest of your audience quickly.

Standing in front of an audience, slouched, hands in pockets, cap pulled low over your head, and mumbling, “my name is… and I am going to tell you about…” is an effective method of NOT getting attention and interest. Before you even open your mouth, your attire, stance, and physical presence are all sending out loud signals that you have no interest in the speech, so why should the audience.

Gain the Goodwill of the Audience

Over 2000 years ago, probably the pre-eminent speech teacher of all time, Aristotle noted the importance of gaining the goodwill of the audience:

…it is not only necessary to consider how to make the speech itself demonstrative and convincing, but also that the speaker should show himself to be of a certain character…and that his hearers should think that he is disposed in a certain way toward them; and further, that they themselves should be disposed in a certain way towards him (Freese, 1982).

When an audience has decided to listen to you—when you have gained their attention and interest—you still need them to think favorably of you. The most effective way of doing this is by establishing your credibility to speak. Credibility is your believability. You are credible when the audience thinks you know what you are talking about. There are a number of methods for developing credibility, and you will use them throughout the speech. In the introduction, however, since you have comparatively little time to develop this credibility, your options are a bit more limited.

To be persuasive, we must be believable. To be believable, we must be credible. To be credible, we must be truthful.

~ Hellmut Walters

Essentially, credibility has two elements: external credibility and internal credibility. External credibility is the type of credibility you as a speaker gain by association: use of sources that the audience finds credible, for example. In an introduction, you may be able to develop external credibility by this means, as we will see later in this section.

More importantly, given the immediate nature of an introduction, is internal credibility. You develop internal credibility as the speaker through specific actions. First, be appropriately attired for a public presentation. Second, make eye contact with the audience before you speak. Third, speak clearly, fluently and confidently.

You can also demonstrate internal credibility by demonstrating personal experience with or knowledge of the topic of your speech. Audiences are more positively disposed toward a speaker who has had experience with the topic of his or her speech. You can also demonstrate credibility and goodwill by showing a connection to your audience, demonstrating shared experiences or shared values.

A student giving a speech to a class about a month before spring break, right in the middle of an extended cold spell of a long Midwestern winter, offered this introduction as a way to show shared values and experiences:

I need everyone to close his or her eyes. All right, now I need everyone to picture how he or she got to school today. Did you bundle up with a hat, some mittens, boots, and two jackets because it’s so cold outside before you left for class? While walking to class, was it cold? Did your ears burn from the icy wind blowing through the air? Were your hands cold and chapped? Now I want you all to think about the sun beating down on your body. Picture yourself lying on the beach with sand between your toes and the sound of the ocean in the background. Or picture yourself poolside, with a Pina Coloda perhaps, with tropical music playing in the background. Picture yourself in Mazatlan, Mexico (Townsend, 2007).

When speakers can identify with the audience and can show how the audience and the speaker share experiences, then the audience is more receptive to what the speaker has to say. The speaker is both more credible and more attractive to the audience.

The secret of success is constancy of purpose.

~ Benjamin Disraeli

Clearly State the Purpose

This seems like such a basic step, yet it is one too often missed; and without this step, it is difficult for the audience to follow, much less evaluate and comprehend, a speech. In both basic composition classes and basic public speaking classes, this function is much the same: State the thesis or central idea of your speech. In all speeches, there should be that one sentence, that one statement that succinctly and accurately lets the audience know what the speech will be about and what the speaker plans to accomplish in the speech.

Preview the Speech

The thesis statement lets the audience know what the speech is about and what you want to accomplish. The preview statement lets the audience know HOW you will develop the speech. A preview can be understood as a roadmap—a direction for the speech that leads to a successful conclusion. A preview lets the audience know what will come first, what comes next, and so on, to the end of the speech. The preview is essentially an outline—an oral outline—of the basic organizational pattern of the main points. Previews help the audience follow the content because they already know the structure.

Speakers who talk about what life has taught them never fail to keep the attention of their listeners.

~ Dale Carnegie