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13: Power of Industrialization

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    The First Industrial Revolution was the period of social and economic change that transformed human groups from an agrarian society into an industrial one in certain areas in Europe and North America. It was followed by the Second Industrial Revolution, where coal mines, steelworks, and textile factories replaced homes as the place of work. These two revolutions gave rise to a number of new ideologies as the world marched onto the 19th and 20th centuries.

    • 13.1: Introduction
    • 13.2: Industrial Revolutions
      Abundant fossil fuels and innovative machines powered and launched an era of accelerated change that continues to transform human society. We call these changes Industrial Revolutions.
    • 13.3: Capitalism and Communism
      Around 1500 CE, several drastic changes were set in motion. Overseas trade established new networks and boosted collective learning and commercialization. By the 1600s and 1700s, custom and command ceased to exert as much influence as the pursuit of wealth. Rather than survival, obedience, or tradition, it was “the lure of gain...[that] steered the great majority to his or her task.”
    • 13.4: Nationalism
      Central to nationalist movements was the concept that the state should correspond to the identity of a “people,” although who or what defines the identity of “the people” proved a vexing issue on many occasions.
    • 13.5: Socialism
      Socialism was a specific historical phenomenon born out of two related factors: the social disorder that occurred with the French Revolution and the growth of industrial capitalism. It sought to address both the economic repercussions of the industrial revolution, especially in terms of the living conditions of workers, and to provide a new moral order for modern society.
    • 13.6: First Wave Feminism
      Even as socialist parties were growing in size and strength, another political and cultural conflict raged: the emergence of feminism.

    Thumbanil: The Black Country in England, west of Birmingham; via Wikipedia).

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